Venous system Anatomy Lecture Notes
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How much of the blood volume is located within the veins?
60 % of the blood volume
How much lower is the pressure in the venous system than in the arterial system?
Edema is considered a ....
venous system problem
What is the general rule regarding the smooth muscle in the veins?
the larger the vein the less the smooth muscle it contains
Valves open and close in response to what?
Where is the largest amount of valves located?
in the calf below the knee
Where are there no valves?
Venae Cavae (plural form)
How many valves are located in the PTV's?
How many valves are located in the ATV's?
How many valves are located in the Peroneal veins?
How many valves are located in the SFV?
How many valves are located in the EIV?
Where does the cardiac veins drain into?
into the coronary sinus
Ulnar veins drain the what?
Superficial Palmar Arch
Radial veins drain the what?
Deep Palmer Arch
How long is the Left Brachiocephalic Vein?
2 1/2 inches
How long is the Right Brachiocephalic Vein?
Innominate vein is also called...
An important thing to remember regarding the Innominate vein...
Have an Rt. and Lt. Innominate veins
What landmark does the brachial vein become the axillary vein?
teres major muscle
What are two possible anatomical variations of deep veins in the upper extremity?
2 axillary veins
2 brachial veins or all the way up
What is the important thing to remember about the Common Iliac Veins?
Lt. Common Iliac vein could have more problems because of the 90 degree angle = greater chance of thrombus.
Where does the superficial veins lay?
Lie between 2 layers of superficial fascia.
Where does the Inferior Vena cava lay in relation to the abdominal aorta?
Inferior Vena Cava is to the right of aorta.
Aorta is to the left of the Inferior Vena Cava
Where do the Common Iliac Veins join to make Inferior Vena Cava?
What bifurcates higher...
aorta or inferior vena cava?
Where do the renal veins lie in relation to the renal arteries?
veins anterior or in front of the arteries
Where is the Common Iliac V. lie in relation to the Rt. common A.?
below and behind
Where does the popliteal vein lie in relation to the POPA?
posterior or behind
What vessels flow into the IVC?
renal veins and hepatic veins
What is another name for the internal iliac vein?
What is the landmark for the external Iliac Vein?
Inguinal ligament or Poupart's ligament
What vein does the great saphenous dump into?
the Common Femoral Vein
What is the Junction called that blood and thrombus passes from superifical veins into deep veins in the Lower extremity?
Sapheriofemoral junction or Saph-fem Junction
Blood from Greater saphenous veins drains into the Common femoral vein.
What is the landmark for the Anterior Tibial Veins?
Prox ATA and ATV's are located closer to what bone?
Dist ATA and ATV's are located closer to what bone?
What is the landmark for the Posterior Tibial Veins?
The Tibioperoneal Trunk veins are formed from what two sets of veins?
Posterior Tibial Veins
Where is a common place for thrombus formation within the lower extremity?
What does thrombus look like in the Soleal Sinuses?
Looks like grapes
Why are Soleal Sinuses common site for thrombus formation?
They are little reservoirs where blood just sits and is inactive.
They are valveless spaces.
What does the Soleal Sinuses drain into?
Posterior Tibial veins
What is the cardiac output?
the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.
What is the stroke volume?
the amount of blood pumped by lt. ventricle in one cycle.
What is the law that explains the relationship of venous return and cardiac output?
Frank Starling Law
What is the formula of cardiac output?
stroke volume X heart rate
What are three venous functions?
1.) affect cardiac output
2.) Help regulate body temperature
3.) Store blood
When your body is hot what is it's natural response to cool itself?
small cutaneous veins dilate and heat escape
When your body is cold what is it's natural response to warm itself?
small cutaneous veins constrict and minimize heat loss
What does Capacitance mean?
ability to store blood
What does Phasicity mean?
respirations help get venous blood back to the heart with the help of valves.
What does Confluence mean?
when two veins form into one vein
What is Venae comites or comitants?
when there is 2 or more veins and an artery
What are six venae comites or comitants?
- 1.) Radial
- 2.) Ulnar
- 3.) Anterior Tibs
- 4.) Posterior Tibs
- 5.) Peroneals
- 6.) Gastrocs
What is the transmural pressure when standing?
What is intraluminal pressure?
What is the tissue pressure?
High transmural pressure
- high intraluminal pressure
- low tissue pressure
What are two other names for the Greater Sapheneous?
Long Saphenous Vein
Internal Saphenous Vein
What are three other names for the Lesser Saphenous?
What are the three ways that help veins get blood back to the heart?
3.) calf muscle pump
What is the intraluminal pressure at the ankle when standing?
What is the intraluminal pressure at the ankle level when lying down?
What is the intraluminal pressure at the ankle level when walking?
What veins may normally have pulsatility like arteries? (3)
- 1.) Internal Jugular Vein
- 2.) Subclavian Veins
- 3.) sometimes the Axillary veins
What are 6 symptoms of venous insufficiency?
- 1.) Recurrent swelling of lower calf and ankle
- 2.) Chronic limb swelling
- 3.) Venous Claudication-pain in legs due to venous congestion.
- 4.) Telangiectasias-intradermal venules of 1 mm or less in diameter.
- 5.) Reticular veins- dilated subdural veins of 1-4 mm
- 6.) Varicose veins
What are the 6 Doppler Characteristics in Normal veins?
- 1.) Patency- vessel is open
- 2.) Spontaneity- flow is present or not putting transducer down.
- 3.) Phasicity- venous flow varying with respiration.
- 4.) Nonpulsatility- normal veins are not corresponding to cardiac cycle.
- 5.) Augmentation-An increase in venous flow due to a maneuver.
- 6.) Competence- valves are working
What does vena mean?
vein (singular form)
What does venae mean?
vein ( plural form)
What are the Sural veins?
the veins that drain blood from the calf into the popliteal vein.
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