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intercellular compartment called organelles that include a well defined nucleus.
no organelles, no nuclear membrane, differences in chemical composition and biochemical activity. no proteins called histones for DNA
Mitochondria: "Energy Production"
oxidative phosphorylation uses oxygen(aerobic) = 1:32 atp
Contain mitochondria and it creats 1:2ATP
Anaerobic- breakdown of sugar 1:2 ATP
Destroy: Golgi decides where it goes.
- Paracrine-surrounding cells
- Hormonal-blood endocrine glands
DNA has two jobs
- Protein synthesis-most common
converting DNA to MRNA
Where ribosomes produce an amino acid to make protein and live in the endoplastic reticulmn.
Cellular transport: Passive diffusion
- high to low so down hill, no gravity, no ATP
- Force that drives it is concentration gradient.
- A. small, B. lipid soluble, C. neutral
- high to low, carrier-protein, No ATP
- A. big, B. charged, C. h2o soluble
Needs ATP, protein-channel, low to high uphill.
"Toes" 2 daughter cells-diploid look the same 46 chromosomes, for growth and healing
"Mini Me" 4 daughter cells, 23 total chromosomes, Haploid, sexual cellular division. Making gametogenesis(babies).
DNA has two functions:
- Replication: forms chromosomes for replication.
- Nucleolus: its the name for protein synthesis
What do you need to make DNA:
Phosphate bond, sugar(deoxyribose)Rna(ribose), 4 nitrogen base (ATCG), Rna(AUCG)
- Every 3 codon=1 amino acid
- We have 20 amino acids.
Carry amino acids to Ribosomes.
are found in the genes of organisms, viruses.
expressed or moved to messenger RNA
Any inherited alteration of genetic material
Many forms changing of genes
Base pair substitution, one base pair replaces another so 3 replaces 3. Most common doesn't cause a disease.
insertion or deletion of base pairs not form of 3 which cause a shift in reading frame the causing an alteration in the AA sequence.
Agents that increase the frequency of mutation.(radiation,nitrogen mustard, vinyl chloride)
- Cells with multiple of the normal number of chromosomes.
- Gametes euploid=haploid 23
- Somatic=Diploid 46
A cell that does not contain a multiple of 23 chromosomes it has extra or missing some
there are 3 copies of one chromosome
presence of only chromosome, for example female have only one X instead of two.
extra portion of each chromosome is present in each cell
two population with different genotypes
Examples of aneuploidy in somatic chromosomes:
- Trisomy 13-plateu syndrome(least common)
- Trisomy 18-edwards syndrome
- Trisomy 21-down syndrome
- The lower the number the more pathological
5 or more increases mental retardation,
Klinefelter syndrome:47 xxy
They have primary traits of male at birth but the don't have any puberty changes.
5- Reductase deficiency (xy)
46 normal chromosomes but they are missing one enzyme. Primary female traits but secondary male traits.
Means two copies must be present from both parents. Sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis.
You only need to get the abnormal gene from one of the parents autosomal mean in chromosomes 1-22,Muscular dystrophy hunington's.
Its for males because females need two copies of the bad x gene. Hemopholia
Set of genes a person have in their genome.
physical attributes as coded by genes and environmental factors that contribute to the attributes. left the disease untreated.
having identical pair genes; like identical twins
Having two different alleles from a single trait; twin that are different
Autosomal Recessive (Y): Sickle cell hemoglobin
- One mutation: genotype=heterozygous
- Two mutations: genotype=homozygous
- : phenotype=positive
Autosomal Dominant(X): Huntington, MD
- One Mutation: genotype=heterozygous domint
- Two mutations: genotype=homozygous domint
X-Linked Recessive: hemophilia/female (x)
one: geno=hetero recessive /pheno=negative
Two: geno=homo recessive /pheno=positive
Male:one=geno hetero/ pheno= positive
X-Linked Dominant: the are equal in female and male.
- one: geno=hetero/ pheno=positive
- two: geno=homo / pheno= positive
- male: one = hetero/ pheno= positive
genotype of multiple genes all acting together; skin color, eyes, height
when environment factors influence the expression of a trait: alzheimers
assumption of a disease
- -breakdown in tissues reduction in size.
- -increase in size: heart
- -increase in the number of cells
- -replacement from one differential cell type to another differential cell type.
Cancer-abnormality of development, epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation. Expansion of inmature cells.
- Bronco-pulmonary dysplasia pre cancer but not cancer:
- smoking, you have diplastic tissue.
-programmed cell death Karyohexis primary marker for apoptosis.
Tummor suppressor gene:
- if its "on"= no cancer
- if its "off"=cancer
- if its "off"= good no cancer
- if its "on" = cancer
cancer has moved to neighboring cells; blood and lymph it has traveled.
Tumors have to basic components:
Parenchyma: from neoplastic cells, distinguishing cells of that organ
Stroma: connective tissue cell of any organ which support the parenchyma cells of that organ
Divergent differentiation of a single neoplastic clone
Neoplasm containing recognizable mature or inmature cells, have the ability to differentiate to any of the cell types found in the body.
6 hallmarks for cancer:
- 1. self sufficiency in growth signals
- 2.insensitive to antigrowth signals
- 3.evading apoptosis
- 4.replecative potential
- 5.angiogenesis=growing new blood vessels
The p53:Tummor suppressor gene guardian of the human genome
distruption is a 50 of all cancers, acts like a checkpoint in the cell cycle, preventing or programming cell death.
- mutation inherited, or family member, outside source, DNA tumor viruses, adenovirus, hpv
- mdm-2 which binds with p53 and inactivates it
new blood vessels form from preexcisting blood vessels. 1-million tumor cells can grow without blood supply.
Telomerase: enzyme from the cancer that it will allow to grow infinite
inhibits natural cell death via programmed loss of the telomere in each mitrotic divison: 12 mitrotic divisions after 12 they are not allowed anymore.
chemo,radiation,surgery,anti-angiogenesis(anti-VEGF), bone marrow transplant, laser treatment.
clonogenic cells post radiation: