ch 10 motivation

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ch 10 motivation
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2014-10-23 20:47:47
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motivation
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  1. a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
    motivation
  2. a complex behavior that rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
    instinct,
  3. The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
    drive- reduction theory—
  4. tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
    homeostasis—
  5. a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
    incentives
  6. the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases.
    Yerkes-Dodson law
  7. Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychiological needs become active.
    hierarchy of needs
  8. the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
    glucose
  9. the point at which your "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may combine to restore the lost weight.
    set point
  10. the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
    basal metabolic rate
  11. desire for significant accomplishment, for mastery of skills or ideas, for control, and for rapidly attaining a high standard.
    achievement motivation
  12. a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
    emotion
  13. the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
    James-Lanange theory
  14. the theory that an emotiotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
    Cannonon-Bard theory
  15. the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognftively label the arousal.
    two-factor theory
  16. the tendency of facial muscle slates to trigger corresponding feelings, such as fear, anger, or happiness.
    facial feedback effect
  17. Today's evolutionary psychology shares an idea that was an underlying assumption of instinct theory. That idea is that 

    a. physiological needs arouse psychological states 
    b. genes predispose species-typical behavior. 
    c. physiological needs increase arousal. 
    d. external needs energize and direct behavior.
    1. b
  18. An example of a physiological need is _______
    An example of a psychological drive is _______


    a. hunger; a "push" to find food 
    b. a "push" to find food; hunger 
    c. curiosity; a "push" to reduce arousal 
    d. a "push" to reduce arousal; curiosity
    2. a
  19. . Jan walks into a friend's s kitchen, smells bread baking, and begins to feel very hungry. The smell of baking bread is a(n) _________(incentive/drive).
    3. incentive
  20. ___________ theory attempts to explain behaviors that do NOT reduce physiological needs.
    4. Arousal
  21. With a challenging task, such as taking a difficult exam, performance is likely to peak when arousal is 

    a. very high. c. very low. 
    b. moderate. d. absent.
    5. b
  22. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, our most basic needs are physiological, including the need for food and water; just above these are ________ needs. 


    a. safety 
    b. self-esteem 
    c. belongingness 
    d. self-transcendence
    6. a
  23. 7. Journalist Dorothy Dix (1861-1951) once remarked, "Nobody wants to kiss when they are hungry." Which motivation theory best supports her statement?
    • Maslow's hierarchy of needs best supports this statement because it addresses the primacy of some motives over others. Once our basic physiological needs are met, safety concerns are addressed next, followed by belongingness and love needs (such as the desire to kiss).
  24. According to the concept of set point, our body maintains itself at a particular weight level. This "weight thermostat" is ___________.
    8. homeostasis
  25. Which of the following is a genetically predisposed response to food? 

    a. An aversion to eating cats and dogs 
    b. An interest in novel foods 
    c. A preference for sweet and salty foods 
    d. An aversion to carbohydrates
    9. c
  26. The blood sugar _______ provides the body with energy. When it is_______ (low/high), we feel hungry.
    glucose; low
  27. The rate at which your body expends energy while at rest is referred to as the ____  ______ rate.
    basal metabolic
  28. Obese people find it very difficult to lose weight permanently. This is due to several factors, including the fact that 

    a. dieting triggers neophobia. 
    b. the set point of obese people is lower than average. 
    c. with dieting, metabolism increases. 
    d. there is a genetic influence on body weight.
    12. d
  29. Which of the following is NOT part of the evidence presented to support the view that humans are strongly motivated by a need to belong? 

    a. Students who rated themselves as "very happy" also tended to have satisfying close relationships. 
    b. Social exclusion—such as exile or solitary confinement— is considered a severe form of punishment. 
    c. As adults, adopted children tend to resemble their biological parents and to yearn for an affiliation with them. 
    d. Children who are extremely neglected become with- drawn, frightened, and speechless.
    14. c
  30. The __________-_____________ theory of emotion maintains that a physiological response happens BEFORE we know what we are feeling.
    James-Lange
  31. Assume that after spending an hour on a treadmill, you receive a letter saying that your scholarship request has been approved. The two-factor theory of emotion would predict that your physical arousal will 

    a. weaken your happiness. 
    b. intensify your happiness. 
    c. transform your happiness into relief. 
    d. have no particular effect on your happiness.
    b
  32. Zajonc and LeDoux maintain that some emotional reactions occur before we have had the chance to label or interpret them. Lazarus disagreed. These psychologists differ about whether emotional responses occur in the absence of 


    a. physical arousal. 
    b. the hormone epinephrine. 
    c. cognitive processing. 
    d. learning.
    c
  33. When people are induced to assume fearful expressions, they often report feeling a little fear. This result is know as the ________  __________effect.
    facial feedback
  34. • Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for ea- easy or well learned tasks. (1) How might this phenomenon affect runners? (2) How might this phenomenon affect anxious test-takers facing a difficult exam? (3) How might the performance of anxious students be affected by relaxation training?
    ANSWERS: (1) Runners tend to excel when aroused by competition. (2) High anxiety in test-takers may disrupt ti performance. (3) Teaching anxious students how to relax before an exam can enable them tt° perform better
  35. what are these?
    • Insulin, 
    • Ghrelin 
    • Leptin. 
    • Orexin
    • PYY

    a. appetite hormones
    b. appetite suppressing hormones
    c. enzymes
    d. names of disney characters
    The appetite hormones
  36. To indicate the level at which a person's weight settles in response to caloric intake and energy use.

    A. settling point 
    B. basal metabolic rate 
    C. set point 
    D. Obesity
    A.  settling point
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. adaptive for our ancestors by protecting them from potentially toxic substances.
    neophobia
  38. Which THREE of the following five strategies help prevent unwanted weight gain? 

    a. Proper sleep 
    b- Regular exercise 
    c. Eating the heaviest meal in the evening 
    d. Eating with friends 
    e. Joining a support group
    ANSWERS: a., b., e.
  39. • Social networking tends to _____(strengthen/weaken) your relationships with people you already know, ______(increase/decrease) your self-disclosure, and ________(reveal/ hide) your true personality.
    ANSWERS: strengthen; increase; reveal
  40. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, (a) our physiological response to a stimulus (for example, k pounding heart), and (b) the emotion we experience (for example, fear) occur _______(simultaneously/sequentially). According to the James-Lange theory, (a) and (b) occur ___________(simultaneously/sequentially).
    ANSWE WERS:: simultaneously; sequentially  (first the physiological response, and then the experienced emotion)
  41. • According to Schachter and Singer, two factors lead to our experience of an emotion: (1) physiological arousal and (2) ______appraisal.
    ANSWER: cognitive
  42. Theory 
    Explanation of Emotions 
    Emotions arise from our awareness of our specific bodily responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. 

    Example 
    We observe our heart racing after a threat and then feel afraid. 

    A.  Lazarus
    B.  James-Lange 
    C.  Cannon-Bard 
    D.  Schachter-Singer 
    E.  Zajonc; LeDoux 
    B.  James-Lange
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Explanation of Emotions 
    Emotion-arousing stimuli trigger our bodily responses and simultaneous subjective experience. 

    Example Our heart races at the same time feel afraid. 



    A.  Schachter-Singer 
    B.  Zajonc; LeDoux 
    C.  Cannon-Bard 
    D.  Lazarus
    E.  James-Lange 
    C.  Cannon-Bard
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Explanation of Emotions 
    Our experience of emotion depends on two factors: general arousal and a conscious cognitive label. 

    Example 
    We may interpret our arousal as fear or excitement, depending on the context. 

    A.  Cannon-Bard 
    B.  Schachter-Singer 
    C.  Lazarus
    D.  James-Lange 
    E.  Zajonc; LeDoux 
    B.  Schachter-Singer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Explanation of Emotion: 
    Some embodied responses happen instantly, without conscious appraisal. 

    Example 
    We automatically feel startled by a sound in the forest before labeling a threat. 

    A. Cannon-Bard 
    B. Zajonc; LeDoux 
    C. Schachter-Singer
    D. James-Lange 
    E. Lazarus 
    B.  Zajonc; LeDoux
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Explanation of Emotions 
    Cognitive appraisal ("Is it dangerous or not?")—sometimes without our awareness-defines emotion.

    Example 
    The sound is "just the wind." 

    A. Cannon-Bard 
    B. Schachhter-Singer
    C. Zajonc; LeDoux 
    D. Lazarus 
    E.James-Lange 
    D.  Lazarus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. ______________ (Women/Men) report experiencing emotions more deeply, and they tend to be more adept at reading nonverbal behavior.
    ANSWER: Women
  48. • Are people in different cultures more likely to differ in their interpretations of facial expressions, or of gestures?
    ANSWER: gestures

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