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view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values Into their developing superegos.
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
Pleasure centers on the mouth—sucking, biting, chewing what Stage ?
Oral (0-18 months)
Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with t demands for control what stage?
Anal (18-36 months)
Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings.
Phallic (3-6 years)
A phase of dormant sexual feelings
Latency (6 to puberty)
Maturation of sexual interests
Genital (puberty on)
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
A little boy reverts to the oral comfort of thumb sucking in the car on the way to his first day of school.
Switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites.
Repressing angry feelings, a person displays exaggerated friendliness.
Disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
"The thief thinks everyone else is a thief" (an El Salvadoran saying).
Offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions.
A habitual drinker says she drinks with her friends "just to be sociable."
Shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or
less threatening object or person.
A little girl kicks the family dog after her • Mother sends her to her room.
Refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities.
partner denies evidence of his loved one's affair
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Rorschach inkblot test
• According to Freud's ideas about the three-part personality structure, the ________operates on the reality principle arid tries to balance demands in a way that produces long-term pleasure rather than pain; the _______ operates on the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification; and the __________represents the voice of our internalized ideals (our conscience).
ANSWERS: ego; id; superego
• In the psychoanalytic view, conflicts unresolved during the first three psychosexual stages may lead to ______at that stage.
• Freud believed that our defense mechanisms operate _____________(consciously/unconsciously) and defend us against _____________.
ANSWERS: unconsciously; anxiety
view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth.
according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
unconditional positive regard
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self- report inventories and peer reports.
• Which two primary dimensions did Hans and Sybil Eysenck propose for describing personality variation?
ANSWER: introversion-extraversion and emotional stability-instabibility
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
a ta test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
empirically derived test
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context.
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
• Albert Bandura proposed the _______-_____perspective on personality, which emphasizes the interaction of people with their environment. To describe the interacting influences of behavior, thoughts, and environment, he used the ____-_____.
ANSWERS: social-cognitive; reciprocal determinism
in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer thoughts, feelings, and actions.
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
» one's feelings of high or low self-worth.
one's sense of competence and effectiveness.
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
excessive self-love and self-absorption.
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
• The tendency to accept responsibility for success and blame circumstances or bad luck for failures is called _____ - _______. The tendency to overestimate others' attention to and evaluation of our appearance, performance, and blunders is called the ___.
ANSWERS: self-serving bias; spotlight effect
_______(Secure/Defensive) self-esteem correlates with aggressive and antisocial behavior.
________(Secure/Defensive) self-esteem is a healthier self-image that allows us to focus beyond ourselves and enjoy a higher quality of life.
ANSWERS: Defensive; Secure
Freud believed that we may block painful or unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, or memories from consciousness through an unconscious process called ___________.
According to Freud's view of personality structure, the "executive" system, the ______, seeks to gratify impulses of the ______in more acceptable ways.
a. id; ego
b. ego; superego
c. ego; id
d. id; superego
Freud proposed that the development of the "voice of conscience" is related to the ______—> which internalizes ideals and provides standards for judgments.
According to the psychoanalytic view of development, we all pass through a series of psychosexual stages, including the oral, anal, and phallic stages. Conflicts unresolved at any of these stages may lead to
a. dormant sexual feelings.
b. fixation at that stage.
c. preconscious blocking of impulses.
d. a distorted gender identity.
Freud believed that defense mechanisms are unconscious attempts to distort or disguise reality, all in an effort to reduce our ______.
_______tests ask test-takers to respond to ambiguous stimulus, for example, by describing it or telling a story about it.
In general, neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney accepted many of Freud's views but placed more emphasis than he did on
a, development throughout the life span.
b. the collective unconscious.
c. the role of the id.
d. social interactions.
8. Modern day psychodynamic theorists and therapists agree with Freud about
a. the existence of unconscious mental processes.
b. the Oedipus complex.
c. the predictive value of Freudian theory.
d. the superego s role as the executive part of personality.
9. Which of the following is NOT part of the contemporary view of the unconscious?
a. Repressed memories of anxiety-provoking events
b. Schemas that influence our perceptions and interpretations
c. Parallel processing that occurs without our conscious knowledge
d. Instantly activated emotions and implicit memories of learned skills
10, Maslow s hierarchy of needs proposes that we must satisfy basic physiological and safety needs before we seek ultimate psychological needs, such as self-actualization. Maslow based his ideas on
a. Freudian theory.
b. his experiences with patients.
c. a series of laboratory experiments.
d. his study of healthy, creative people.
The total acceptance Rogers advocated as part of a growth- promoting environment is called
________ _______ __________.
12. unconditional positive regard
The _______ theory of personality focuses on describing characteristic behavior patterns, such as agreeableness or extraversion.
One famous personality inventory is the
a. Extraversion-Introversion Scale.
b. Person-Situation Inventory.
5. Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five personality factors?
, Our scores on personality tests best predict
a. our behavior on a specific occasion.
b. our average behavior across many situations.
c. behavior involving a single trait, such as conscientiousness.
d. behavior that depends on the situation or context.
. The social-cognitive perspective proposes our personality is shaped by a process called reciprocal determinism, as personal factors, environmental factors, and behaviors interact. An example of an environmental factor is
a. the presence of books in a home.
b. a preference for outdoor play.
c. the ability to read at a fourth-grade level.
d. the fear of violent action on television.
18. Critics say that _____-_______personality theory is very sensitive to an individual's interactions with particular situations, but that it gives too little attention to the person's enduring traits.
Researchers have found that low self-esteem tends to be linked with life problems. How should this link be interpreted?
a. Life problems cause low self-esteem.
b. The answer isn't clear because the link is correlational and does not indicate cause and effect.
c. Low self-esteem leads to life problems.
d. Because of the self-serving bias, we must assume that external factors cause low self-esteem.
21. Individualist cultures tend to value ____; collectivist cultures tend to value _____.
a. interdependence; independence
b. independence; interdependence
c. group solidarity; uniqueness
d. duty to family; personal fulfillment