Nutrition Ch 6

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SelinaBell
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286831
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Nutrition Ch 6
Updated:
2014-10-25 22:07:33
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sb
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Lifespan Wellness 235
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Exam #3
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  1. Bottled Water

    Artesian
    originates from a well and is collected without mechanical pumping. The well must tap a confined aquifer, and the water level must stand at some height above the top of the aquifer. An aquifer is an underground layer of rock or sand with water
  2. Bottled Water

    Fluoridated
    has fluoride added within the limits established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  3. Bottled Water

    Ground
    from an underground source that is under pressure greater than or equal to atmospheric pressure
  4. Bottled Water

    Mineral
    contains at least 250 ppm total dissolved solids (minerals) that are naturally present, not added
  5. Bottled Water

    Purified
    produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis, or other suitable processes to remove minerals and other solids. It may also be referred to as "demineralized" water. Purified is not synonymous with "sterile"
  6. Bottled Water
    Sparkling
    contains a "fizz" from carbon dioxide that was either present in the water when it emerged from its source or was present, removed in processing, and then replaced. Carbon dioxide levels cannot exceed the amount present in the original water. Seltzer, tonic water, and club soda are carbonated soft drinks that contain sugar and calories; they are not types of sparking water.
  7. Bottled Water

    Spring
    comes from an underground source that flows naturally to the surface. It must be collected at the spring or through a bored hole that taps the spring underground.
  8. Bottled Water

    Sterile
    meets USP requirements under "sterility tests"
  9. Bottled Water

    Well
    collected with a mechanical pump from an underground aquifer
  10. Estimate Fluid Needs

    Three methods
    1) 30 mL/kg body weight

    (59.1 kg * 30 mL/kg =  1773 mL/d)

    2) 1 mL/cal consumed

    (2000 cal/day * 1 mL/cal = 2000 mL/day)

    3) Provide 1500 calories for the first 20 kg of weight and 15 mL/kg for each remaining kg.

    (59.1-20= [39.1*15]+1500 mL = 2086)
  11. General Functions of Minerals

    Provide structure
    Calcium, phosporus, and magnesium provide structure to bones and teeth

    Phosphorus, potassium, iron, and sulfur provide structure to soft tissues

    Sulfur is a constituent of skin, hair, and nails
  12. General Functions of Minerals

    Fluid balance
    Sodium, potassium, and chloride maintain fluid balance
  13. General Functions of Minerals

    Acid-base balance
    Sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate are part of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate system that regulates blood pH.

    Phosphorus is involved in buffer systems that regulate kidney tubular fluids
  14. General Functions of Minerals

    Nerve cell transmission and muscle contraction
    Sodium and potassium are involved in transmission of nerve impulses

    Calcium stimulates muscle contractions

    Sodium, potassium, and magnesium stimulate muscle relaxation
  15. General Functions of Minerals

    Vitamin, enzyme, and hormone activity
    Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12

    Magnesium is a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes. 

    Iodine is essential for the production of thyroxine

    Chromium enhances the action of insulin
  16. Sodium

    Sources
    Processed foods; canned meat, vegetables, soups; convenience foods; restaurant and fast foods
  17. Sodium

    Functions
    Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, maintains muscle irritability, regulates cell membrane permeability and nerve impulse transmission
  18. Sodium

    Deficiency
    Rare, except with chronic diarrhea or vomiting and certain renal diorders; nausea, dizziness, muscle cramps, apathy
  19. Sodium

    Toxicity
    Hypertension, edema
  20. Potassium

    Sources
    Canned tomato products, sweet potatoes, soy nuts, pistachios, prunes, clams, molasses, yogurt, tomato juice, prune juice, baked potatoes, cantaloupe, legumes, orange juice, bananas, peanuts, artichokes, fish, beef, lamb, avocados, apple juice, raisins, plantains, spinach, asparagus, kiwifruit, apricots
  21. Potassium

    Functions
    Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, nerve impulse transmission, catalyst for many metabolic reactions, involved in skeletal and cardiac muscle activity
  22. Potassium

    Deficiency
    Muscular weakness, paralysis, anorexia, confusion (occurs with dehydration)
  23. Potassium 

    Toxicity
    (from supplements/drugs)

    Muscular weakness, vomiting
  24. Chloride

    Sources
    1 tsp salt = 3600 mg Cl

    Same sources as sodium
  25. Chloride

    Functions
    Fluid and electrolyte balance, acid-base balance, component of hydrochloric acid in stomach
  26. Chloride

    Deficiency
    Rare, may occur secondary to chronic diarrhea or vomiting and certain renal disorders: muscle cramps, anorexia, apathy
  27. Chloride

    Toxicity
    Normally harmless; can cause vomiting
  28. Major electrolytes
    Sodium

    Potassium

    Chloride
  29. Major minerals
    Calcium

    Phosphorus

    Magnesium

    Sulfur
  30. Major trace minerals (9)
    Iron

    Zinc

    Iodine

    Selenium

    Copper

    Manganese

    Fluoride

    Chromium

    Molybdenum
  31. Calcium 

    Sources
    Milk, yogurt, hard natural cheese, bok choy, broccoli, Chinese/Napa cabbage, collards, kale, okra, turnip greens, fortified breakfast cereal, fortified orange juice, legumes, fortified soy milk, almonds
  32. Calcium 

    Functions
    Bone and teeth formation and maintenance, blood clotting, nerve transmission, muscle contraction and relaxation, cell membrane permeability, blood pressure
  33. Calcium

    Deficiency
    Children: impaired growth

    Adults: osteoporosis
  34. Calcium 

    Toxicity
    Constipation, increased risk of renal stone formation, impaired absorption of iron and other minerals
  35. Phosphorus

    Sources
    All animal products (meat, poultry, eggs, milk), ready-to-eat cereal, dried peas and beans; bran and whole grains; raisins, prunes, dates
  36. Phosphorus

    Functions
    Bone and teeth formation and maintenance, acid-base balance, energy metabolism, cell membrane structure, regulation of hormone and coenzyme activity
  37. Phosphorus

    Deficiency
    Unknown
  38. Phosphorus

    Toxicity
    Low blood calcium
  39. Magnesium

    Sources
    Spinach, beet greens, okra, Brazil nuts, almonds, cashews, bran cereal, dried peas and beans, halibut, tuna, chocolate, cocoa
  40. Magnesium

    Functions
    Bone formation, nerve transmission, smooth muscle relaxation, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme activity
  41. Magnesium

    Deficiency
    Weakness, confusion; growth failure in children

    Severe deficiency: convulsions, hallucinations, tetany
  42. Magnesium 

    Toxicity
    No toxicity demonstrated from food 

    Supplemental Mg can cause diarrhea, nausea, and cramping.

    Excessive Mg from magnesium in Epsom salts causes diarrhea
  43. Sulfur

    Sources
    All protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, dried peas and beans, nuts)
  44. Sulfur

    Functions
    Components of disulfide bridges in proteins; component of biotin, thiamin, and insulin
  45. Sulfur

    Deficiency
    Unknown
  46. Sulfur

    Toxicity
    In animals, excessive intake of sulfur-containing amino acids impairs growth
  47. Nonheme iron absorption
    Enhanced when consumed at the same time as:

    • Vitamin C-rich foods, such as orange juice or tomato products
    • Heme iron found in meat, fish, and poultry

    Nonheme iron absorption is impaired when consumed at the same time with: 

    • Coffee
    • Tea
    • Calcium
    • Phytates found in dried peas and beans, rice and grains
    • Oxalates found in spinach, chard, berries, and chocolate
  48. Iron

    Sources
    Beef liver, red meats, fish, poultry, clams, tofu, oysters, lentils, dried peas and beans, fortified cereal, bread, dried fruit
  49. Iron

    Functions
    Oxygen transport via hemoglobin and myoglobin; constituent of enzyme systems
  50. Iron

    Deficiency
    Impaired immune function, decreased work capacity, apathy, lethargy, fatigue, itchy skin, pale nail beds and eye membranes, impaired wound healing, intolerance to cold temperatures
  51. Iron 

    Toxicity
    Increased risk of infections, apathy, fatigue, lethargy, joint disease, hair loss, organ damage, enlarged liver, amenorrhea, impotence

    Accidental poisoning in children causes death
  52. Zinc

    Sources
    Oysters, red meat, poultry, dried peas and beans, fortified breakfast cereals, yogurt, cashews, pecans, milk
  53. Zinc

    Functions
    Tissue growth and wound healing, sexual maturation and reproduction; constituent of many enzymes in energy and nucleic acid metabolism; immune function; vitamin A transport, taste perception
  54. Zinc 

    Deficiency
    Growth retardation, hair loss, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation and impotence, eye and skin lesions, anorexia, delayed wound healing, taste abnormality, mental lethargy
  55. Zinc

    Toxicity
    Anemia, elevated low-density lipoprotein, lowered high-density lipoprotein, diarrhea, vomiting, impaired calcium absorption, fever, renal failure, muscle pain, dizziness, reproductive failure
  56. Iodine

    Sources
    Iodized salt, seafood, bread, dairy products
  57. Iodine

    Functions
    Component of thyroid hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate
  58. Iodine

    Deficiency
    Goiter, weight gain, lethargy

    During pregnancy may cause severe and irreversible mental and physical retardation (cretinism)
  59. Iodine

    Toxicity
    Enlarged thyroid gland, decreased thyroid activity
  60. Selenium

    Sources
    Brazil nuts, tuna, beef, cod, turkey, egg, cottage cheese, rice, enriched and whole wheat bread
  61. Selenium

    Functions
    Component of antioxidant enzymes, immune system functioning, thyroid gland activity
  62. Selenium

    Deficiency
    Enlarged heart, poor heart function, impaired thyroid activity
  63. Selenium 

    Toxicity
    Rare; nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hair and nail changes, nerve damage, fatigue
  64. Copper

    Sources
    Organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grains, cocoa products, drinking water
  65. Copper 

    Functions
    Used in the production of hemoglobin; component of several enzymes; used in energy metabolism
  66. Copper

    Deficiency
    Rare; anemia, bone abnormalities
  67. Copper 

    Toxicity
    Vomiting, diarrhea, liver damage
  68. Manganese (Mn)

    Sources
    Widely distributed in foods; best sources are whole grains, oat bran, tea, pineapples, spinach, dried peas and beans
  69. Manganese (Mn)

    Functions
    Component of enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, protein, and fat, and in bone formation
  70. Manganese (Mn)

    Deficiency
    Rare
  71. Manganese (Mn)

    Toxicity
    Rare; nervous system disorders
  72. Fluoride (FI)

    Sources
    Fluoridated water, water that naturally contains fluoride, tea, seafood
  73. Fluoride 

    Functions
    Formation and maintenance of tooth enamel, promotes resistance to dental decay, role in bone formation and integrity
  74. Fluoride

    Deficiency
    Susceptibility to dental decay; may increase risk of osteoporosis
  75. Fluoride 

    Toxicity
    Fluorosis (mottling of teeth), nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, chest pain, itching
  76. Chromium (Cr)

    Sources
    Broccoli, grape juice, whole grains, red wine
  77. Chromium (Cr)

    Functions
    Cofactor for insulin
  78. Chromium (Cr)

    Deficiency
    Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance
  79. Chromium (Cr)

    Toxicity
    Dietary toxicity unknown

    Occupational exposure to chromium dust damages skin and kidneys
  80. Molybdenum (Mo)

    Sources
    Milk, legumes, bread, grains
  81. Molybdenum (Mo)

    Functions
    Component of many enzymes; works with riboflavin to incorporate iron into hemoglobin
  82. Molybdenum (Mo)

    Deficiency
    Unknown
  83. Molybdenum (Mo)

    Toxicity
    Occupational exposure to molybdenum dust causes gout-like symptoms
  84. For 2200 calorie diet with less than 10% of calories from beverages, drink approximately:
    6 glasses of water or at least half of total fluid intake

    3 - 4 cups of unsweetened tea and coffee

    2 glasses of low-fat milk

    4 oz of 100% fruit juice

    alcohol - no more than one drink daily for women and one to two for men

    "diet" beverages w/ artificial sweeteners are not recommended but up to 1 - 2 glasses daily can be consumed
  85. Sodium Free
    Less than 5 mg
  86. Very low sodium
    less than 35 mg
  87. Low sodium
    less than 140 mg
  88. Reduced or less sodium
    At least 25% less sodium compared with a standard serving size of the traditional food
  89. Light in sodium
    50% less sodium than the traditional food (restricted to more than 40 calories per serving or more than 3g fat per serving)
  90. Salt free
    less than 5 mg
  91. Unsalted or no added salt
    No salt added during the processing (this does not necessarily mean the food is sodium free)

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