parts of a cell vocab.txt

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parts of a cell vocab.txt
2014-10-23 21:22:56
Andrew Bio
Parts of a cell vocabulary
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  1. plasma membrane
    the cells outer boundary that covers the surface of the cell and acts as a boundary between the inside and outside of a cell
  2. cytoplasm
    the region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and of the organelles except for the nucleus
  3. cytosol
    the part of the cutoplasm that includes molecules and small particles but not membrane-bound organelles
  4. nucleus
    membrane-bound organelle that contains a cell's DNA
  5. organelle
    well-defined, intracellular structures that perform specific functions for the cell
  6. cell
    the smallest unit that can carry out all of the processes of life
  7. cell theory
    all living organisms are composed of cell(s), cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism, and cells come only from preexisting cells
  8. cell wall
    a rigid layer that lies outside the cell's plasma membrane; contain a carbohydrate called cellulose
  9. central vacuole
    a large, fluid filled organelle that stores water, enzymes, metabolic wastes, and other materials
  10. phospholipid bilayer
    a double layer of phospholipids that makes up organelle membranes
  11. chromosome
    one of the structures in a cell's nucleus that contains is composed of DNA and proteins
  12. nuclear envelope
    the double-membrane that surrounds the nucleus
  13. nucleolus
    that part of a nucleus where RNA is synthesized
  14. ribosome
    a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; protein synthesis occurs here
  15. mitochondrion
    the cell organelle that is surrounded by to membranes ajnd that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
  16. endoplasmic reticulum
    a sustem of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
  17. Golgi apparatus
    a system of flattened,membranous sacs that packages and transports materials around the cell
  18. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    a sustem of interconnected, flattened sacs covered with ribosomes that produces phospholipds and proteins, including digestive enzymes
  19. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    lacks ribosomes and has a smoother appearance; builds lipids such as cholesterol; produces estrogen and testosterone, releases calcium; abundant in liver and kidney cells, found in small amounts in other cells
  20. vesicles
    small, spherically shaped sacs that are surounded by a single membrae and that are classified by theri contents.
  21. lysosome
    vesicles that bud from the golgi apparatus and that contain digestive enzymes
  22. peroxisomes
    not prodouced by golgi apparatus, neutralize free radicals; produce hydrogen peroxide when breaking down fatty acids
  23. lyoxysomes
    specialized peroxisomes that break down stored fats to provide energy tor the developing plant embryo
  24. cytoskeleton
    a network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscrosses the cytosol and that give shape to the cel and acts as a system of internal tracks
  25. microtubule
    hollow tubes made of a protein called tubulin
  26. microfilament
    long threads of the beadlike protein actin and are linked end to end and rapped around each other like two strands of rope
  27. cilium
    hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell and that assist in movement; small and plentiful
  28. flagellum
    hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell and that assist in movement; larger and less numerous
  29. centriole
    consist of tow short cylinders of microtubules perpendicular to each other and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope that organize the micro tubules of the cytoskeleton during cell division (not found in plant cells)
  30. plastid
    organelles that are surrounded by a double-membrane and contain their own DNA
  31. chloroplast
    use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water; contain thylakoids
  32. thylakoid
    a flattened sac in a system that contain the green pigment chlorophyll
  33. chlorophyll
    the main polecule that abosrbs light and captures light enrgy for the cell