BioMid Ch26

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BioMid Ch26
2014-10-24 06:40:41

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  1. Binomial Nomenclature
    Genus Species
  2. Linnaean System
    • Domain>Kingdom>Phyla>Classes>Orders>Family>Genus>Species
    • Donkey Kong Played Crappy. Overall fair game station.
    • 8
  3. Phylocode
    Only names groups that include common ancestor and descendants
  4. Dichotomy
    • 2 way branch points
    • Divergence of 2 evolutionary lineages from a common ancestor
  5. Rooted Phylogenic Tree
    Shows most recent common ancestor
  6. Basal Taxon
    lineage that diverges early in history
  7. Polytomy
    • Branch point where more than 2 groups emerge
    • Might signify uncertainty
  8. Phylogenetic trees can/cannot
    • 1) shows pattern of descent not phenotipic similarity
    • 2) Branches do not indicate age of species
    • 3) taxon on a phylo tree could not have evolved from a taxon next to it
  9. Homologies
    Phenotypic and genetic similarities due to a shared ancestry
  10. Morphology
    Similar species may have morphological divergence
  11. Anologous
    Similar adaptations from different lineages
  12. HOmoplasies
    • anologous structure that arose independently
    • *the more similar and complex the structure, the more likely they have evolved from the same ancenstor
  13. Molecular systematics
    data from DNA that can determine evolutionary relationships
  14. Cladistics
    • Classifying organisms on common ancestry
    • Ancestral clades and descnedant clades
    • Taxons can be like a clade if it is monophyletic (ancestral species > descnedants)
  15. Monophyletic
    Ancestral > Descendants
  16. Paraphyletic
    ancestral> only some descendants
  17. Polyphyletic
    Taxa with different ancestors
  18. Ancestral characteristic
    originated from an ancestor of the taxon
  19. Derived Characteristic
    Evolutionary novelty unique to the clade
  20. Inferring phylogenies using derived Characters
    Can infer a clade in which a shared derived characteristic first appeared to classify evolutionary relationships
  21. Ingroup
    the species being studied
  22. Outgroup
    a group that diverged before the lineage
  23. Maximum parsimony
    • simplest explanation consistent with facts
    • systematics is never 100% sure
  24. Maximum likelihood
    • probability rules of how DNA sequences change over time
    • systematics is never 100% sure
  25. Molecular clock (when HIV infected)
    • rate of mutation over time
    • 1930s
  26. Revisions of the tree of life
    • went from 2 kingdoms to 3 domains
    • possibly a ring shape instead of tree of life