BioMid Ch27

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BioMid Ch27
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  1. 3 key features of prokaryotes
    • 1) small
    • 2) reproduce by binary fission
    • 3) short generation times
  2. Cell wall
    • maintains cell shape
    • protection
    • prevents from bursting in hypotonic environment
  3. Plasmolyze
    most prokaryotes inhibit cell reproduction in a hepertonic environment
  4. Peptidoglycan
    bacterial cell wall
  5. Gram-positive bacteria
    Large layer of peptidoglycan over the plasma membrane
  6. Gram negative bacteria
    Thin layer of peptidoglycan between two layers of plasma membrane
  7. Archaeal cell walls
    variety of polysaccharides and proteins
  8. Capsule
    • Found in many prokaryotes
    • polysaccharide and proteins
    • surrounds the cell walls
    • adheres to others as colony
    • protects from dehydration
    • shields from host's immune system
  9. Fimbriae
    hairlike appendages that help prokaryotes stick to their substrate
  10. Pili
    appendages that pull two cells together for DNA transfer
  11. Motility
    movement
  12. Taxis
    directed toward or away from a stimulus
  13. Chemotaxis
    • Movement in response to chemicals
    • positive chemotaxis: toward food
    • negative: away from toxics
  14. Flagella
    • Not covered by plasma membrane
    • made of protein
    • anologous 
    • Motor > hook > filament
    • modified function of a simpler structure
  15. Exaptation
    process in which existing structures take on new function through descent with modification
  16. Internal Organization and DNA of Prokaryotes
    • Simpler than euk
    • No compartments
    • metabolism in membrane folds
    • less DNA than euk
    • circular choromosome
    • Nucleoid contains the chromosomes
    • Plasmids replicate DNA
    • SMaller ribosomes and different RNA and protein content
  17. Binary fission
    prokaryotic cell divides into 2
  18. Endospores
    some bacteria that becomes endospores when it lacks nutrients
  19. Genetic variation
    • does not diversify from meiosis and fertilization
    • the offspring can have mutations
  20. Transformation
    • genotype altered by uptake of DNA from environment
    • ex: nonpathogenic cell picks up DNA that makes it pathogenic
    • Cell surface proteins allow DNA that is closely related to their specie to pass through
  21. Transduction
    Phages (viruses that infect bacteria) can attach onto prokaryotic cell and inject DNA from the previous donor
  22. Conjugation
    • DNA transferred between 2 prokaryotic cells
    • made by pilli
  23. F factor
    • aka fuck factor
    • ability to form a pili and donate DNA during conjugation
  24. F plasmid
    • F+ DNA donors
    • F- recipients in conjugation
  25. Hfr chromosomes
    donor chromosomes during conjugation
  26. R plasmids
    residtance genes
  27. Obligate aerobes
    must use O2 for cellular respiration
  28. Obligate anaerobes
    • Poisoned by O2
    • obtain energy by fermentation
  29. Anaerobic respiration
    substances other than O2 are used in respiration
  30. Facultative anerobes
    • use 02 if present
    • if not > fermentation and anaerobic respiration
  31. Nitrogen fixation
    • mconverting atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia
    • nitrogen metabolism
    • ex: Cyanobacteria = most self-sufficient organism (co2, n2, h20 and other minerals)
  32. Heterocycsts
    • Specilized cells to do nitrogen fixation
    • metabolic cooperation with other cells 
    • that perform photosynthesis
    • photosynthesis cells transfer O2 to the heterocysts to carry out nitrogen fixation.
  33. BIofilms
    surface coating colonies
  34. 3 facts through Molecular systematics
    • 1 Some bactaria are closer to eukaryotes
    • 2 Genetic diversity is immense
    • 3 Horizontal gene transfer responsible for evolution of prokaryotes
  35. horizontal gene transfer
    traditional reporduction
  36. Extreme halphiles
    love salty
  37. Thermophiles
    hot temps
  38. Methanogens
    • anerobes
    • poisoned by O2
    • prefer Methane
  39. Crenarchaeota
    live in hot springs
  40. Major bacterial groups
    • 5 groups
    • Proteobacteria
    • Chlamydias
    • Spirochetes
    • Cyanobacteria
    • Gram-positive bacteria
  41. Types of proteobacteria
    • 5 types
    • Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon
  42. Alpha bacteria
    • proteobacteria
    • close with eukaryotic host
  43. Beta bacteria
    • important role in nitrogen recycling by oxidizing ammonium, produces nitrite as a waste product
    • proteobacteria
  44. Gamma bacteria
    • obtain energy by oxidizing H2S producing sulfur as waste
    • proteobacteria
  45. Delta bacteria
    • Myxobacteria (remember russian fly)
    • slime secreting
    • myxospores when no food
    • drills into prey using digestive enzymes
    • proteobacteria
  46. Epsilon bacteria
    • blood poisoning 
    • intestinal inflammation
    • proteobacteria
  47. Chlamydias
    • bacteria
    • Survive only in animal cells
    • resource = ATP
    • gram negative
  48. Spriochetes
    • Free living bacteria
    • spiral around
  49. Cyanobacteria
    • Only prokaryotes with plantlike, oxygen generating photosyntesis
    • evolved through endosymbiotic
    • n2 > inorganic compounds in amino acid synthesis and other organic molecules
  50. Endosymbiosis
    Mitochondria & Chloroplasts were originally free living prokaryotes that joined the cell
  51. Gram-positive bacteria
    • as diverse as proteobacteria
    • decompose organic matter in soil
    • live in soil
    • no cell walls
  52. Mycoplasmas
    Gram-positive bacteria with no cell walls
  53. ChemoHeteroTrophic prokaryotes
    • decomposers
    • convert molecules into ones that can be taken in by other organisms
    • soil nutrient concentration
  54. Symbiosis
    ecological relationship
  55. Mutualism
    • two species benefit
    • Host > symbiont
  56. Symbiont
    User in the host >symbiont relationship
  57. Commensalism
    only one specie benefits while the the other is neither helper or harmed
  58. Parasitism
    one specie feeds off the host
  59. Pathogens
    parasites that cause disease
  60. Mutualistic Bacteria + Humans
    • intestines
    • 500-1000 species of bacteria
    • process food that we need help with
  61. Pathogenic Bacteria & HUmans
    • Some are transmitted through other species
    • horizontal gene transfer = spread of virulent genes
    • Harmless bactera > potent pathogen
  62. Exotoxins
    Proteins are secreted by pathogenic prokaryotes
  63. Endotoxins
    • LipoPolySaccharide components of outer membrane
    • gram-negative bacteria
  64. Benefit of E. Coli
    used in gene cloning
  65. Benefits of agrobacterium tumefaciens
    transgenic(artificial genes) plants
  66. Other uses of prokaryotes in technology
    • plastics
    • Sewage converted into fertilizer or landfill
  67. Bioremediation
    uses organisms to remove pollutants from soil, air, water

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