BioMid Ch28 Protists

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BioMid Ch28 Protists
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  1. Structural and Functional Diversity in Protists
    • 1) more structural and functional diversity than any other eukarya
    • 2) Carry out functions in organelles
    • 3) Use nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus and lysosomes
    • 4) Contractile vacuoles pump excess water
    • 5) Nutritional diversity: photoautotrophs, heterotrophs, mixotrophs
    • 6) Sexual (meiosis and fertilization) and Asexual Reproduction (budding)
  2. Endosymbionts in Eukaryotic Evolution
    • Mitochondria 
    • Plastids: photosynthetic cyanobacterium gave rise to algae
  3. Secondary symbiosis
    organism that underwent endosymbiosis is taken up by another organism
  4. Supergroups of Eukaryotes
    • Excavates
    • CHromalveolates
    • Rhizarians
    • Archaeplastid
    • Unikonts
    • 5
  5. Excavates
    • Supergroup
    • >by cytoskeleton
    • 1) Diplomonads
    • 2)Parabasalids
    • 3) Euglenozoans
  6. Diplomonads
    • Lack plastids
    • have modified mitochondria
    • anaerobic
    • mitosomes (cannot use oxygen)
    • 2 nuclei
    • Many flagella
    • Excavates
  7. Motosomes
    • cannot use oxygen
    • need anaerobic biochemical pathway
  8. Parabasalids
    • lack plastids
    • modified mitochondria
    • anaerobic environment
    • Hydrogenosomes (generate energy anearobically releasing hydrogen)
    • Excavates
  9. Hydrogenosomes
    • Generate energy anaerobically
    • release hydrogen gas
  10. Euglenozoan
    • 1)Kinetoplastids 
    • 2) Euglenids
    • Predatory heterotrophs/Photosynthetic autothrophs and parasites
    • rod with spiral or crystalline structure inside flagella
    • some have eyespots (photoreceptors)
    • some have cloroplasts
    • kinetoplasty
  11. Are eukaryotic flagella and prokaryotic flagella the same?
    • False
    • but they are both hydrodynamic
  12. Eyespots
    • photoreceptors
    • found in some Euglenozoans
  13. Kynetoplasty
    • complex of extranuclear DNA
    • single large mitochondrian
    • found in Euglenozoans Kinetoplastids
  14. Kinetoplastids
    • Feed off prokaryotes in fresh water, marine and moist terrestrial environments
    • Euglenozoans
    • ex: Trypanosoma
  15. Which Euglenozoans have chloroplasts?
    Euglenas
  16. Trypanosoma
    • Causes sleeping sickness, congestive heart failure
    • Transmitted by blood-leeches
    • Before the immune system recognizes the protein to attack, the parasite switches to a different surface protein
    • Phylum: Euglenozoans
    • Super: Excavates
  17. Euglenids
    • 1 or 2 flagella on one end of the cell
    • Mixotrophs
    • Engulf prey by phagocytosis
    • Phylum: Euglenozoans
    • Super: Excavates
  18. Chromalveolates
    • Supergroup
    • 1) Alveolates
    • 2) Stramenopiles
    • based on monophyletic group
    • Secondary Endosymbiosis
  19. Alveolates
    • >Chromalveolates
    • 1) Dinoflagellates
    • 2) Apicomplexans
    • 3) Cilates
  20. Dinoflagellates
    • reinforced cellulose plates
    • 2 Flagella spin as they move
    • heterotrophic except for phytoplankton
    • red tide
    • Some produce toxins
    • Phylum: Alveolates
    • Super: Chromalveolates
  21. Phytoplankton
    • Mixotrophs
    • Order> Dinoflagellates
    • Phylum> Alveolates
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  22. Apicomplexans
    • Parasites of animals and cause human diseases
    • Spreads infectious cells called sporozoites
    • Have an apex
    • Phylum> Alveolates
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  23. Sporozoites
    Infectious cells in Apicomplexans
  24. Apex
    • Apicomplexans
    • Complex organelle at one end of the cell to penerate the host and inject sporozoites
  25. Ciliates
    • Use of cilia to move and feed
    • cilia either completely covers the cell or in row clusters
    • 2 Types of nuclei: micronuclei and macronuclei
    • Reproduce asexually by binary fission
    • Phylum: Alveolates
    • Super: Chromoalveolates
  26. Macronucleus
    • controls feeding, waste, water ballance
    • Order> Ciliates
    • Phylum> Alveolates
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  27. Micronucleus
    • Used in conjugation but does not reproduce
    • Order> Ciliates
    • Phylum> Alveolates
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  28. Stramenopiles
    • have hairy flagellum
    • 1) Diatoms
    • 2) Gold algae
    • 3) Brown algae
    • 4) Alternating Generations
    • 5) Oomycetes
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  29. Diatoms
    • Most diverse group of protists
    • Affects global carbon dioxide levels
    • Phylum> Stramenopiles
    • Super> chromoalveolates
  30. Gold algae
    • Yellow and brown carotenoids
    • Biflagellated at on eend of the cell
    • Photosynthetic and sometimes mixotrophic
    • Phylum>Stramenopiles
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  31. Carotenoids
    Pigments
  32. Brown algae
    • multicellular
    • marine
    • Brown carotenoids in plastids
    • Cell wall with cellulose and gel-forming polysaccharides
    • Phylum> Stramenopiles
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  33. Alternation of generations
    • both haploid and diploid stages are multicellular
    • Heteromorphic
    • Isomorphic
    • Phylum> Stramenopiles
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  34. Sporophyte
    • haploid cell
    • alternation of generations
    • Phylum>Stramenopiles
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  35. Gametophytes
    • Diploid
    • alternation of generations
    • Phylum> Stramenopiles
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  36. Heteromorphic
    sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different
  37. Isomorphic
    sporophytes and gametophytes look similar but differ in chromosome number
  38. Oomycetes
    • Water molds, white rusts, mildews
    • Cell walls made of cellulose
    • Similar to fungi, convergently evolved (together)
    • Decomposers, Parasites
    • causes crop loses
    • Phylum> Stramenopiles
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  39. Red tide
    • explosive population growth
    • Order>Dinoflaggelates
    • Phylum> Alveolates
    • Super> Chromoalveolates
  40. Rhizarians
    • Supergroup
    • Monophyletic group, proposed by molecular systematics
    • Amoebas
    • Pseudopodia
    • 1) Radiolarians
    • 2) Forams
    • 3) Cercozoans
  41. Radiolarians
    • Intricate symmetrical internal skeletons made of silica
    • Pseudopodia radiate from body reinforced by microtubules covered by cytoplasm
    • Engulfs organisms attached to pseudopodia
    • Super> Rhizarians
  42. Forams
    • foraminiferans (tests) consist of of organic material hardened by calcium carbonate
    • pseudopdia
    • photosynthetic usually
    • Sup>Rhizaians
  43. Cercozoans
    • Amoeboid and flagellated protists
    • Pseudopodia to eed
    • mostly heterotrophs
    • parasites or predators
    • some have photosynthetic from cyanobacterium
    • Sup> Rhizaians
  44. Archaeplastid
    • Red and Green algae, protist that absobed cyanobac
    • Super
  45. Red algae
    • masks the green of chlorophil
    • shallow waters = greener
    • deeper = so red almost black
    • some become heterotrohes and lose pigment
    • contain phycerythrin (abosrb blue +green)
    • alternation of generation
    • Super> Archaeplastid
  46. Phycoerthrin
    absorbs blue and green
  47. Green algae
    • 1) charophytes
    • 2) chlorophytes
    • Sexual and asexual
    • biflagellated gametes
    • Sup>Archaplastid
  48. Charophytes
    • land plant like alae
    • Phylum> green algae
    • Super>archaeplastid
  49. Chlorophytes
    • marine and terrestrial
    • symbiotic cntributing photosynthesis to host
    • found in snow
    • more complex mechanism 
    • true multicellular bodies with division and differentiation
    • Phylum> Green algae
    • Sup> archaeplastid
  50. Unikonts
    • Super
    • 1)Amoebozoans
    • 2)Opisthokonts
  51. Amoebozoans
    • amebas with tube shaped pseudopodia
    • Slime molds
    • Gymnamoebas
    • entamoebas
    • Super>Unikonts
  52. Slime mold
    • Phylum>amoebozoans
    • Sup>unikonts
    • similar to fungi
    • yellow or orange
    • many nuclei
  53. Cellular slime molds
    • Phy>Aoebozoans
    • Unikonts>sup
  54. gymnamoebas
    • ph>amoebozoans
    • s>unikonts
    • seek and consume bacteria
    • sometimes eat nonliving matter
  55. Entamoebas
    • ph>amoebozoans
    • s>unikonts
    • parasites
    • infects all vertebrates and some invertebrates
  56. Opisthokonts
    • Nucleariids 
    • Choanoflaggelates
    • Sup>Unikons
  57. Protists in communities
    • symbioic: coral reefs
    • Parasites

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