lab animal Mid Term

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Hfowler51
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286957
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lab animal Mid Term
Updated:
2014-10-26 00:49:04
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Lab Animal mid term
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  1. What are the Guiding principles in animal research?
    • 1. Reduce
    • 2. Refine
    • 3. Replace
  2. Over __ of the animals used in our labs are ____. The remaining _ includes fish, ferrets, pigs, dogs, cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and non human primates.
    • 98%, rodents
    • 2%
  3. What 5 things are involved in Bioengineering?
    • 1. Biomaterials
    • 2. Biomechanics
    • 3. Biomedical Imaging
    • 4. Bioinstrumentation
    • 5. Tissue Engineering
  4. Bioengineered teeth from cultured ______.
    rat tooth bud cells
  5. Institutions conducting animal research have 2 responsibilities:
    1. to the public- to conduct the research in a humane fashion in accordance with applicable laws, regulations and best standards of care.

    2. to the animals- to constantly seek alternatives, to refine the research methods, and to avoid or alleviate pain or distress whenever possible
  6. ____ monkeys have been taught to control a robot arm using brain signals alone.
    Rhesus
  7. _____ is the proliferation of a network of blood vessels that penetrates into cancerous growths.
    Tumor angiogenesis
  8. 7 Angiogenesis inhibitors
    • 1. Endostatin
    • 2. Angiostatin
    • 3. Sunitinib (sutent)
    • 4. Interferon
    • 5. Metalloproteinases
    • 6. platelet Factor
    • 7. Thalidomide
  9. 2 major breast cancer susceptibility genes
    • 1. BRCA1
    • 2. BRCA2
  10. Most frequently mutated gene in human cancer
    p53 mutants: Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
  11. p53 null mice have a ______ incidence and ______.
    High tumor incidence and short lifespan
  12. the physical environment of the secondary enclosure
    Macroenvironment
  13. The immediate physical environment surrounding the animal
    Microenvironment
  14. AAALAC
    Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care
  15. OLAW
    Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare
  16. USDA
    United States Department of Agriculture
  17. Recommended __ Bulb Macroenvironmental Temperatures for Common Laboratory Animals
    Dry
  18. Recommended Humidity
    30-70%
  19. Use of _____ air is not recommended
    Recycled
  20. Recommended fresh air exchanges ____ in animal rooms
    10-15/hr
  21. 4 factors affecting temps/humidity
    • 1. bedding materials
    • 2. Animals per cage
    • 3. Frequency of cage changing
    • 4. Forced ventilation or static caging
  22. these cages have forced, filtered air. This decreases the build up of ammonia levels, dander, and particulates and allows longer time between cage changes
    Ventilated
  23. these are usually filtered cages but have no forced air. Cage changing for these cages will be more frequent.
    Static
  24. support, care, and use areas are adjacent to animal housing
    Centralized
  25. animal housing and use is not sole use of space or physically spa rated from support areas
    Decentralized
  26. 5 Resource Management
    • 1. Human resources
    • 2. Fiscal
    • 3. Capital
    • 4. Info
    • 5. Time management
  27. Why are Rats and mice the most commonly used species in biomedical research? 4 reasons
    • 1. Small size
    • 2. High reproductive capability
    • 3. Ease of handling
    • 4. Availability of special "breeds" called strains
  28. 3 things if you know you have allergies to rodents.
    • 1. Wear PPE (personal protective equipment) consisting of mask, gloves and gown
    • 2. Discard PPE and wash hands well
    • 3. Leave room if necessary
  29. 3 things if you do not know you are allergic to rodents
    • 1. Wear gloves
    • 2. Wash hands
    • 3. outerwear worn inside a rodent room be used for that purpose only. (protects others from reactions to allergens on your clothing
  30. 3 types of handling techniques
    • 1. Tail hold (mouse, rat)
    • 2. Scruff hold (mouse)
    • 3. Body hold (rat)
  31. 3 restraint devices
    • 1. plexiglas restrainer
    • 2. Decapicone
    • 3. Centrifuge tubes
  32. 3.Pros to chemical restraint
    • 1. No movement
    • 2. Good access anywhere on body
    • 3. Short or long periods
  33. 4 cons to chemical restraint
    • 1. must monitor anesthetic depth
    • 2. Vaporizers are expensive
    • 3. Chemical anesthetics
    • 4. Anesthetics may cause vasoconstriction
  34. 7 things on cage id
    • 1. investigators name
    • 2. Species
    • 3. strain
    • 4. vendor
    • 5. age
    • 6. sex
    • 7. arrival date
  35. 6 methods of Individual techniques
    • 1. Ear tags
    • 2. Ear punches
    • 3. Tail tattoos
    • 4. Toe amputation (hairless neonates only)
    • 5. nontoxic dyes
    • 6. shave patterns into fur
  36. Distance between anus and genital papilla in males is twice that in females
    Anogenital Distance
  37. Oral meds- 2 ways
    • 1. some meds can be placed in water bottle
    • 2. sweet flavored antibiotic can be given by dropper in back of mouth
  38. 4 Research techniques
    • 1. SQ
    • 2. Intraperitoneal
    • 3. Tail vein
    • 4. IM
  39. Blood Volume of Mouse
    10-80 ml/kg or approx. 5.5% of body weight
  40. Blood Volume of rat
    50-65 ml/kg or 6-7%
  41. 5 Blood collection locations
    • 1. Lateral tail vein
    • 2. Ventral tail artery
    • 3. Saphenous vein
    • 4. Retro-orbital venous sinus
    • 5. Cardiac puncture
  42. the act of inducing a painless death
    Euthanasia
  43. 11 criteria to be considered
    • 1. Painless method
    • 2. time it takes to produce unconsciousness
    • 3. Time until death
    • 4. Reliability of method
    • 5. Repeatability of method
    • 6. Personnel safety
    • 7. stress on animal
    • 8. Non-reversibility
    • 9. Cpmpatible with scientific protocol
    • 10.Aethetically acceptable
    • 11. Drug availability and abuse potential
  44. 3 ways to minimize fear and apprehension
    • 1. use gentle restraint and handling
    • 2. use tranquilizers or sedatives
    • 3. prevent conscious animals from observing the euthanasia of others especially their own species
  45. 3 Modes of action of Euthanasia methods
    • 1. Hypoxemia of brain tissues
    • 2. Depression of vital brain centers
    • 3. physical damage to brain tissue
  46. 2 inhaled agents for euthanasia
    • 1. Isoflurane
    • 2. Carbon dioxide
  47. 2 injectable agents for euthanasia
    • 1. Barbituates
    • 2. Potassium chloride
  48. 6 physical methods of euthanasia
    • 1. captive bolt pistol
    • 2. microwave irradiation
    • 3. gunshot
    • 4. cervical dislocation
    • 5. exsanguination
    • 6. liquid nitrogen
  49. Large commercial vendors. Generally have high quality assurance and supply animals guaranteed free of certain infectious diseases.
    Approved Vendor
  50. Universities, hospitals, private labs. QA variable. often only source of rare strains of designer mice
    Nonapproved vendor
  51. to stop breeding and introductions of new animals while allowing a colony to be infected by and recover from a disease agent.
    Burn out
  52. Acute outbreak; usually associated with clinical signs. EX: Mouse Pox virus
    Epizootic
  53. Disease exists within the colony but usually at a subclinical level. EX: Mouse Parvo
    Enzootic
  54. an inanimate object that transmits a disease agent. EX: bedding, gloves
    Fomite
  55. a living thing that transmits a disease agent. EX: Mosquitos
    Vector
  56. 2 Common viruses
    • 1. Mouse Hepatitis
    • 2. Mouse parvo/minute virus
  57. One uncommon virus.
    1. Epizootic diarrhea of infant mice
  58. 2 Rare viruses
    • 1. Ectromelia virus
    • 2.Sendai virus
  59. the big 5 of viral diseases
    • 1. Mouse hepatitis
    • 2. Mouse Parvo
    • 3. Epizootic diarrhea of infant mice
    • 4. Ectromelia
    • 5. Sendai
  60. 4 Mouse Bacterial diseases
    • 1. Helicobacter (common)
    • 2. Corynebacterium bovis (common)
    • 3. Staphylococcal (Common)
    • 4. Citrobacter rodentium (uncommon)
  61. 4 miscellaneous diseases and conditions of mice
    • 1. Malocclusion
    • 2. Fight Wounds
    • 3. B6 Dermatitis
    • 4. Barbering
  62. common virus of rats
    1. Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV)
  63. Less Common Bacterial disease of Rats
    1. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis
  64. Common Fungal Disease of Rats
    1. Pneumocystic carinii
  65. 2 Common Endoparasitic Disease of Rats
    • 1. Pinworms
    • 2. Fur mites
  66. Uncommon Ectoparasitic disease of rats
    Ornithonyssus bacoti
  67. 2 viruses of hamsters
    • 1. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (Rare)
    • 2. Lawsonia intracellularis (common)
  68. Endoparasitic disease of hamsters
    1. Pin worms (Common)
  69. Uncommon Ectoparasitic disease in hamsters
    2. mange (Uncommon)
  70. 3 Bacterial diseases of Guinea pigs
    • 1. Pneumonia (Uncommon)
    • 2. Chlamydial conjunctivitis (Common)
    • 3. Cervical lymphadenitis (rare)
  71. Rare Ectoparasitic disease in Guinea pigs
    Mange
  72. 4 rodent species used in research
    • 1. Mouse
    • 2. Rat
    • 3. Syrian hamster
    • 4. Guinea pig
  73. Largest order of mammals
    Rodentia
  74. Rodent means...
    to gnaw
  75. All of the teeth are open rooted and grow continuously throughout life
    Hipsodontic incisors
  76. Most common animal used in biomedical research
    mouse
  77. genetically diverse lines typically maintained by a rotational mating scheme to maximize heterozygosity and to minimize brother-sister mating
    Outbred stocks
  78. breeding mice that are closely related to produce offspring that are genetically identical
    Inbred strains
  79. 6 things about Genetically engineered mice
    • 1. Transgenics
    • 2. Targeted mutants
    • 3. Designer mice
    • 4. Used as animal models of human diseases
    • 5. Immune status often unknown
    • 6. Always inbred
  80. Second most commonly used animal in biomedical research
    Brown rat
  81. Third most commonly used animal in biomedical research
    Syrian Hamsters
  82. Not often used in research but used for tuberculosis studies, VIT C metabolism, preg complications
    guinea pigs
  83. kind of water they use
    Tap water
  84. 4 water treatments
    • 1. reverse osmosis
    • 2. Autoclaving
    • 3. Acidification
    • 4. Hyperchlorination
  85. 3 methods of water delivery
    • 1. Automatic water delivery systems
    • 2. Water bottles
    • 3. sipper sacks
  86. 3 types of bedding in use
    • 1. Corncob
    • 2. Cellulose products
    • 3. Wood pulp or chips
  87. Temp
    64-79 degrees F
  88. 7 Husbandry issues
    • 1. Overcrowding
    • 2. Fight Wounds
    • 3. Wet cages
    • 4. Preg failures
    • 5. Poor breeding performance
    • 6. Ammonia odor in room
    • 7. Thin, hunched posture

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