BioMid Ch40 Energ

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BioMid Ch40 Energ
2014-10-24 15:26:38

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  1. Body size is limited by
    body mass, limits in mobility
  2. Exchange of nutrients and amount of material needed
    • Exchange of nutriens waste and gasses are proportional to membrane surface area
    • amount of stuff needed is proportional to cell volume
  3. Simpler body lans
    enable direct exchange with environment
  4. flat body maximizes
    exposure to environment
  5. More cells
    smaller ratio of outer surface area to volume
  6. internal body fuids
    link the exchange between surface and cells
  7. Interstitial fluid
    fluid between cells
  8. circulatory fluid
    • only complex body plans
    • exchanges with interstitial fluid
  9. Epithelial types
    • stratified squamous epith = regensrapidly
    • Cuboidal Epi > secretion> kidneys> glands
    • Simple columnar ep>intestinal secretian
    • Simple squamous> exchange difusion, blood vessels, air sacks
    • Pseudostratified columnar epi>single layer>mucous membrane of resp tract
  10. Connective tissue
    • Fibroblasts and macrphages
    • 3 types of fibers
    • collagen (joins tissues) Reticular (srengt and flexibility) Elastic (elasticity)
  11. Loose connective tissue
    holds organs in  place
  12. Fibrous CT
    tendons and ligaments
  13. Bone
    mineralized CT
  14. blood is also
    connective tissue
  15. Cartilage
    strong but flexible support material
  16. Adipose
    loose CT for fat
  17. glial cells
    noursih and replenish neurons
  18. Regulator feedback
    internal mechanism control internal change to face external fluctuation
  19. Conformer feedback
    internal conditions change in accordance with external
  20. Homeostasis mechanisms
    • a) set point
    • b) sensor
    • c) stimulus
    • d) response
  21. Acclimatization
    Gradual adjustement to external changes
  22. 4 processes for heat regulation
    • radiat
    • evap
    • convec
    • condu
  23. Integumentary system
    body covering
  24. Countercurrent exchange
    transfer of heat between fluids that flow in opposite directions
  25. thermogenesis
    • varying heat production to match changes in heat
    • shivering or moving
    • nonshivering> increases metabolism to produce heat instead of atp
  26. Ectodermal heat regulation at cellular level
    lipid saturation, enzymes
  27. bioenergetics
    flow and transformation of energy related to body size, activity and environ
  28. Metabolic rate
    • energy used in a unit of time
    • joules, calories or kCals
    • bmr>basic endotherms rate at rest
  29. BMR in ectoderms
    depends on temperature, standard metaboic rate for that temperature
  30. Influences on metabolic rate
    • 1) M = m^.75¬†
    • 2) energy per gram is inversely related to body size
    • 3) smaller animals have higher metabolic rate per gram, higher breathing rate, higher heart rate and need more food per uni of body mass
  31. BMR
    • maintenance energy
    • BMR>Activity>thermoreg>reproduc>growth
    • Ectotherms have no thermore cost
  32. Torpor
    • physiological state o decreased activity
    • hibernation - long torpor, circadean rhytm seases