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- tiny teeth
- 3rd molar or extra tooth that is tiny
- in molar region
- also microdonts
- usually in molar region
- 2 shown in picture
- overly large teeth
- can be all or just some of the teeth
- root is curved
- Pic C shows an abscess because they went beyond the root
- Effects of syphilis:
- Hutchinsons incisors: look like chiseled incisors
Mulberry Molars: 15-20 tiny cusps
Both occur during calcification and usually come from mother during pregnancy.
- Dens evaginatus:
- an accessory enamel cusp found on the occlusal tooth surface
only on posterior teeth
- Peg Lateral:
- This is congenital.
- Lateral incisors are the most common teeth to have deviations in size and shape.
- Talon cusp:
- accessory cusp found in the cingulum area of maxillary or mandibular permanent incisors
The cingulum turns into a cusp.
- the fusion of two teeth from a single enamel organ (twinning)
means paired or occurring in twos
When you count the teeth, you are likely to get the normal number of teeth.
Fusion: the joining of two developing tooth germs resulting in a single, large tooth.
When counting teeth, there will be one less than normal.
Dens in Dente "Tooth in a tooth":
You would take an xray because of the red dot on the gingiva. That is an abscess. The abscess is the dark spot on the xray.
Concresence: two teeth united by cementum only
would need oral surgery to fix this
Partial anodontia: missing teeth that never formed
Anodontia means missing teeth (can be partial or complete)
Complete anodontia is known as edentulism.
- Supernumerary teeth:
- extra teeth that have formed.
Usually occurs in the anterior region or the molar region. On this patient, it's in premolar and molar regions.
- Supernumerary roots:
- an extra root
this mandibular 2nd premolar is bifurcated...maybe even the first
Mesiodens: an extra tooth that is found only in the maxillary anterior region
Amelogenesis Imperfecta: enamel is deficient.
Could occur from trauma, medicines, diseases.
Enamel forms from an ameloblast. If a disturbance occurs in ameloblast, the enamel is deficient. There's no enamel on these incisors. Occurred during development.
This is imperfect enamel formation.
- Dentinogenesis Imperfecta:
- Dentin didn't develop properly. Teeth look transluscent.
Hypercementosis: more cementum than normal
In the area distal to this tooth, the maxillary sinus has dropped because molars are missing. This is called pneumatization.
- Enamel Hypoplasia:
- This is a deficient enamel. Minor stage looks like white, opaque spots.
- -febrile illness (illness with high fever)
- -vitamin A, C, D deficiency
- -local infection of deciduous tooth
- -ingestion of fluoride
- -congenital syphilis
- -birth injury
Mottled enamel: Fluorosis:
When teeth were developing, this person had too much fluoride. This is moderate fluorosis. Only happens when teeth are developing.
- Enamel Pearl:
- misplaced emaloblasts
- wearing away of incisal and occlusal surfaces
- tooth to tooth contact
caused by clinching or grinding at night
On this pic, you can see calculus deposits, rolled tissue and recession.
Abrasion: mechanical wearing away of tooth structure
(years of brushing too hard)
Erosion:Chemical wearing away of tooth's surface
Bulemia causes the lingual surfaces to wear away, from the stomach acid.
This is mostly seen on facial surfaces. Sucking lemons can do this.
Caused by overuse of methamphetamine
- Fissured Tongue:
- Teach these patients how to clean their tongue.
This can cause halitosis and hold bacteria and trap food.
- White Hairy Tongue:
- Usually caused by thrush (yeast infection) or long term antibiotics.
Arrow pointing to fungiform papillae.
- Black hairy tongue:
- Caused y overuse of certain agent/drugs as well as the patient not cleaning their tongue.
Rinsing with hydrogen peroxide will cause this.
- Median Rhomboid Glossitis:
- may be associated with a fungal infection.
- usually appears as a flat or slightly raised oval or rectangular red area in the midline of the dorsal of the tongue.
Inflammitis of tongue with red shape in midline.
- Geographic tongue:
- occurs on the dorsal and lateral surface of tongue.
- Appears as areas devoid of papilla. Can migrate to other areas of the tongue.
Maxillary Tori:Overgrowth of bone in the palate.
Usually in center of palate.
Exostosis is overgrowth of bone. It's called maxillary tori if it's in the center of the palate.
Mandibular tori: overgrowth of bone in the floor of the mouth.
Really hard to take xrays.
If partials are needed, they must be surgically removed.