Renal and Urinary Tract Drug Uses

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Renal and Urinary Tract Drug Uses
2014-10-25 13:17:32

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  1. Diuretic Drugs
    remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow and sodium excretion and reducing hypertension
  2. Loop diuretics
    • inhibit tubular reabsorption or sodium
    • rapid onset
    • excretion of chloride, potassium, and water
  3. Furosemide adverse side effects
    • hypokalemia (targets sodium and potassium)
    • Provide potassium supplement
  4. Osmotic Diuretics
    • used to reduce intracranial pressure
    • adverse effects rare
  5. Thiazide Diuretics uses
    inhibits reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and water
  6. Thiazide Diuretics Adverse effects
    hypokalemia if prolonged therapy
  7. Potassium-sparing diuretics
    • weaker diuretics and antihypertensive effects, but conserve potassium
    • "aldosterone antagonists"--increases excretion of sodium and water and reduces the excretion of potassium
    • adverse effects uncommon
  8. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
    • block the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, therefore bicarbonate is produced and promotes the excretion of sodium, potassium, and water
    • reduces intraocular pressure to treat glaucoma
  9. Cholinergic Agonists
    • promote action of acetylcholine
    • parasympathomimetic agents
    • uses:
    •    promote voiding of urinary bladder
  10. Bethanechol adverse side effects
    • potential for cholinergic toxicity 
    • vomiting
    • dyspnea
    • defecation
    • tremors
    • *treat with atropine*
  11. Anticholinergic Drugs
    • block agent of acetylcholine
    • parasympatholytic which creates muscle relaxation
    • uses
    •    treat urinary incontinence
  12. Propantheline adverse side effects
    decreased gastric motility and delayed gastric emptying
  13. Adrenergic Antagonists
    • disrupt the sympathetic nervous system
    • sympatholytic
    • alpha-adrenergic antagonists
    • beta-adrenergic antagonists
  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
    ACE inhibitors used to treat hypertension
  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors adverse side effects
    complications in patients with renal insufficiency
  16. vasodilators
    treat non-responding hypertension
  17. calcium channel blockers
    treat non-responding hypertension
  18. antidiuretic hormone
    treat diabetes insipidus
  19. Urinary acidifiers
    used to produce acid urine to dissolve struvite uroliths
  20. Urinary Acidifiers adverse side effects
    GI disturbance
  21. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors
    • decrease production of uric acid
    • used with urate calculolytic diet for dissoluion of ammonium acid uroliths
  22. Urinary Alkalizers
    management of ammonium acid uate, calcium oxalate, and cystine uroliths
  23. Sodium bicarbonate adverse effects
    may cause electrolyte inbalance
  24. Miscellaneous renal drugs
    • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)
    • Anitriptylline (Elavil)
    • Antidepressants and anxiolytic drug with anticholinergic, antihistamionic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties
    • used with IFLUTD or interstitial cystitis
  25. Adverse effects of miscellanious renal drugs
    • dry mouth
    • tachycardia
    • decreased grooming behavior
    • weight gain