NTD309 exam 2 (part 2)
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. What would you like to do?
weight loss during infancy?
loose water weight, but then gain it back mostly in fat for temperature regulation
infancy is the period from?
period of most rapid growth
dramatic changes occur during the
what percent of US infants are born full term?
newborn growth assessment is based on?
birth weight, length and head circumference
death that occurs within the first year
major cause of infant mortality?
other leading causes of infant mortality?
- congenital malformations
- preterm births
3 components of infant development
- rooting reflex
- motor skill development
by what age does infants weight double?
weight triples by hold old?
at birth, the healthy newborn can digest?
when the fetus swallows amniotic fluid which stimulates?
intestinal maturation and growth
factors that impact rate of food passage in GI?
- osmolarity of foods or liquids
- colon bacterial flora
- water and fluid balance in the body
what do growth charts measure?
- head circumference
what percentile is considered average?
how many calories needed for 1st 6 months?
how many calories needed for 2nd 6 months
fat restrictions under the age of 2?
fats should not be restricted
fat is ____ in early feeding, and ___ later in the feeding
when are iron stores depleted?
at 4-6 months
when does an infant need vitamin D supplementation
at 2 months of age
water for babies?
under normal conditions additional water is not necessary
anemia is linked to?
GI blood loss, displacement of iron, calcium and phosphorous
- burp every 10 minutes
- place babies on their backs
- monitor for signs of satiety
at 6-7 months a baby can
grasp and transfer objects
at 7-8 months a baby can
hold bottle, play with food
at around 10 months a baby can?
self feed and drink from a cup
reasons for introducing solid foods?
- replete iron stores
- allergy prevention
- need for vitamin D and fluoride
solids should be introduced?
at 6 months
ideal first food?
rice cereal bc it breaks down easily
how long should you wait before introducing new foods?
guideline for infant feeding?
choose fruits, vegetables, grains but limit high fiber foods
what not to feed an infant?
- allergenic foods
- highly seasoned foods
- cows milk
- choking potential foods
- excessive apple or pear juice
what is baby bottle tooth decay caused by?
- bacteria and sugars from food
- dissolve tooth enamel over time
what is baby bottle tooth decay?
when an infants primary teeth erupt 4-6months
ways to avoid baby bottle tooth decay?
- don't let child fall asleep with bottle
- give child bottle of water only
- don't dip pacifier into sweet liquid
repeated crying spell lasting 3 or more hours
diarrhea is often caused by?
- viral and bacterial infections
- food intolerance
- change in fluid intake
occurs in older infants consuming too few solid foods
iron deficiency anemia
what does iron deficiency anemia affect?
cognitive and CNS development
to help iron deficiency anemia one should?
- may need iron supplementation
- feed iron fortified formula/ cereals/meals
usually due to poor parent-infant interaction
failure to thrive
- included in formula
- fortified cereal after 4-6 months
key to feeding infants?
number of people with diagnosis today
how many new cases
T or F, food allergies can happen at any time
food allergys affect what percent of children under the age of 3
immune mediated response
with this syndrome, if a person is allergic to avocado, then they are allergic to latex
oral allergy syndrome
food allergy =
an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occur reproducibly on exposure to a given food
specific components of food or ingredients within food recognized by allergen-specific immune cells and elicit specific immunologic reactions
food allergens are almost always?
these synthesize against allergens
is a large Y shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects
what do antibodies attach themselves to?
basophils and mast cells
a food specific antibody which circulates in the blood and is produced by your immune system
where are basophils found?
where are mast cells found?
in body tissues
attaches to mast cells and basophils in large amounts
immunoglobulin E (IgE)
types of food intolerance?
- food poisoning
- histamine toxicity
- lactose intolerance
- food additives
- psychological causes
how do allergic reactions work?
food allergens enter your bloodstream, go to target organs and cause allergic reactions
chemicals released by cells when IgE is found on the surface of mast cells and basophils during an allergic reaction
symptoms or responses to allergens?
- can be immediate or delayed
- itchy throat
common food allergens?
shellfish, peanuts, treenuts, eggs, milk, fish
leading causes of anaphylaxis
peanuts and tree nuts
potentially deadly food allergy reaction
food allergens that many children grow out of?
- cows milk
- egg allergy
- tree nut allergy
mother should avoid her own allergy foods, not
all allergy foods
possible protective measure against food allergies?
found in intestines of allergic kids?
clostridia and low levels of bifidobacteria
may promote maturation of immune system in early childhood
found in intestine of non allergic kids?
lactic acid and bifidobacteria
treatment of food allergies?
- avoid food that trigger the reactio
- carry an epi pen
- wear medical alert bracelet
works so immunoglobulin E doesn't respond the way it does
GMO's affect on allergys?
being used to decrease allergies
What would you like to do?
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