NTD309 exam 2 (part 2)

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  1. weight loss during infancy?
    loose water weight, but then gain it back mostly in fat for temperature regulation
  2. infancy is the period from?
    0-12 months
  3. period of most rapid growth
  4. dramatic changes occur during the
    1st year
  5. what percent of US infants are born full term?
  6. newborn growth assessment is based on?
    birth weight, length and head circumference
  7. death that occurs within the first year
    infant mortality
  8. major cause of infant mortality?
    low birthweight
  9. other leading causes of infant mortality?
    • congenital malformations
    • preterm births
    • SIDS
  10. 3 components of infant development
    • reflex
    • rooting reflex
    • suckling
    • motor skill development
  11. by what age does infants weight double?
    4-6 months
  12. weight triples by hold old?
    1 year
  13. at birth, the healthy newborn can digest?
    • fats
    • protein
    • simple sugars
  14. when the fetus swallows amniotic fluid which stimulates?
    intestinal maturation and growth
  15. factors that impact rate of food passage in GI?
    • osmolarity of foods or liquids
    • colon bacterial flora
    • water and fluid balance in the body
  16. what do growth charts measure?
    • weight
    • length
    • head circumference
  17. what percentile is considered average?
  18. how many calories needed for 1st 6 months?
    108 cal
  19. how many calories needed for 2nd 6 months
    98 cal
  20. fat restrictions under the age of 2?
    fats should not be restricted
  21. fat is ____ in early feeding, and ___ later in the feeding
    • low
    • high
  22. when are iron stores depleted?
    at 4-6 months
  23. when does an infant need vitamin D supplementation
    at 2 months of age
  24. water for babies?
    under normal conditions additional water is not necessary
  25. anemia is linked to?
    GI blood loss, displacement of iron, calcium and phosphorous
  26. feeding techniques?
    • burp every 10 minutes
    • place babies on their backs
    • monitor for signs of satiety
  27. at 6-7 months a baby can
    grasp and transfer objects
  28. at 7-8 months a baby can
    hold bottle, play with food
  29. at around 10 months a baby can?
    self feed and drink from a cup
  30. reasons for introducing solid foods?
    • replete iron stores
    • allergy prevention
    • need for vitamin D and fluoride
  31. solids should be introduced?
    at 6 months
  32. ideal first food?
    rice cereal bc it breaks down easily
  33. how long should you wait before introducing new foods?
    a week
  34. introduce ___ before ___
    • vegetable
    • fruit
  35. guideline for infant feeding?
    choose fruits, vegetables, grains but limit high fiber foods
  36. what not to feed an infant?
    • allergenic foods
    • honey
    • highly seasoned foods
    • cows milk
    • choking potential foods
    • excessive apple or pear juice
  37. what is baby bottle tooth decay caused by?
    • bacteria and sugars from food
    • dissolve tooth enamel over time
  38. what is baby bottle tooth decay?
    when an infants primary teeth erupt 4-6months
  39. ways to avoid baby bottle tooth decay?
    • don't let child fall asleep with bottle
    • give child bottle of water only
    • don't dip pacifier into sweet liquid
  40. repeated crying spell lasting 3 or more hours
  41. diarrhea is often caused by?
    • viral and bacterial infections
    • food intolerance
    • change in fluid intake
  42. occurs in older infants consuming too few solid foods
    iron deficiency anemia
  43. what does iron deficiency anemia affect?
    cognitive and CNS development
  44. to help iron deficiency anemia one should?
    • may need iron supplementation
    • feed iron fortified formula/ cereals/meals
  45. usually due to poor parent-infant interaction
    failure to thrive
  46. iron supplements?
    • included in formula
    • fortified cereal after 4-6 months
  47. key to feeding infants?
  48. number of people with diagnosis today
  49. how many new cases
  50. T or F, food allergies can happen at any time
  51. food allergys affect what percent of children under the age of 3
  52. immune mediated response
    celiac disease
  53. with this syndrome, if a person is allergic to avocado, then they are allergic to latex
    oral allergy syndrome
  54. food allergy =
    immune system
  55. an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occur reproducibly on exposure to a given food
    food allergy
  56. specific components of food or ingredients within food recognized by allergen-specific immune cells and elicit specific immunologic reactions
    food allergens
  57. food allergens are almost always?
    a protein
  58. aka immunoglobulin
  59. these synthesize against allergens
  60. is a large Y shaped protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects
  61. what do antibodies attach themselves to?
    basophils and mast cells
  62. a food specific antibody which circulates in the blood and is produced by your immune system
    immunoglobulin E
  63. where are basophils found?
    in blood
  64. where are mast cells found?
    in body tissues
  65. attaches to mast cells and basophils in large amounts
    immunoglobulin E (IgE)
  66. types of food intolerance?
    • food poisoning
    • histamine toxicity
    • lactose intolerance
    • food additives
    • gluten
    • psychological causes
  67. how do allergic reactions work?
    food allergens enter your bloodstream, go to target organs and cause allergic reactions
  68. target organs?
    • skin
    • nose
  69. chemicals released by cells when IgE is found on the surface of mast cells and basophils during an allergic reaction
  70. symptoms or responses to allergens?
    • can be immediate or delayed
    • hives
    • tearing
    • congestion
    • wheezing
    • itchy throat
  71. common food allergens?
    shellfish, peanuts, treenuts, eggs, milk, fish
  72. leading causes of anaphylaxis
    peanuts and tree nuts
  73. potentially deadly food allergy reaction
  74. food allergens that many children grow out of?
    • cows milk
    • egg allergy
    • peanut
    • tree nut allergy
  75. BRAT?
    • banana
    • rice
    • applesauce
    • tea
  76. mother should avoid her own allergy foods, not
    all allergy foods
  77. possible protective measure against food allergies?
    breast feeding
  78. health bacteria?
  79. found in intestines of allergic kids?
    clostridia and low levels of bifidobacteria
  80. may promote maturation of immune system in early childhood
    intestinal microflora
  81. found in intestine of non allergic kids?
    lactic acid and bifidobacteria
  82. treatment of food allergies?
    • avoid food that trigger the reactio
    • carry an epi pen
    • wear medical alert bracelet
  83. works so immunoglobulin E doesn't respond the way it does
    anti-IgE therapy
  84. GMO's affect on allergys?
    being used to decrease allergies
Card Set:
NTD309 exam 2 (part 2)
2014-10-25 17:30:32
ntd 309 nutrition thru lifecycle fall 2014

What is infancy? Food Allergy Fall 2014
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