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don't have enough calories, therefore growth is stunted
growth of child?
there is consistent growth as the child gets older
body fat % of boys and girls before puberty
about the same
body fat % drops off at age 5, then develop it normally from then into adulthood
what happens if adiposity rebound occurs earlier than at age 5?
predictive of adult obesity
how many times should a food be presented before child is interested?
afraid to eat other foods
portion control ?
- 1 Tbs for every age
- ec, age 3- 3Tbs of every item
some characteristics of toddlers/preschoolers?
- decrease growth velocity and appetite
- increased motor skills
- healthy food preferences established
- improve language skills
characterisitcs of school age children
- sense of self
- complex thinking
- self efficacy
cognitive development of preschool-age children?
egocentric( cannot accept anothers point of view)
influence food choices early?
parents and older siblings
parent responsibilities with eating behaviors?
- what food is offered
- when food is offered
- where food is offered
childs responsibilities of eating?
- how much they eat
- whether they eat
energy needs age 1-3? 4-8? 9-13?
- 1,000 cal/day
- 1,600 cal/day
- 2,000 cal/day
protein needs of infant?
found in animal foods?
most toddlers and preschool age children have adequate vitamin and mineral consumption except for
iron and calcium
only nutritious sugar, and has lots of calcium
prevention of iron deficiency anemia?
- used ground meat, vitamin C, reduce bran, tea and coffee
- limit milk consumption
absorption rate of calcium is?
what is calcium absorption increased by?
lactose, vitamin D, and HCl
what is calcium absorption decreased by?
- vitamin D deficiency
- high fiber diet
- high protein diets
you should take calcium supplements with?
eating behaviors of children?
children need to eat often
reference for how US children are growing
BMI growth charts percentile underweight? health weight? overweight? obese?
- <5th percentile
- 5th to <85th
- 85th to <95th
- > 95th
excessive body fatness where there is an imbalance between food consumed and physical activity
obesity can be related to?
obesity is determined through?
consequences of obesity as a child?
- begin puberty early
- taller than peers
- appear stocky
- faster BMR
- early maturing
physical health consequences of obesity?
- respiratory problems
- gastrointestinal problems
- joint problems
- risk for cancers
three major consequences of childhood obesity?
- physical health
- psychological health
doubles risk of adult obesity for both obese and non-obese child
risk of obesity is up to ___% of parents are obese
treatment of obesity?
- behavioral changes
- psychological support
goal for obesity treatment?
stop weight gain
pre-puberty obesity treatment?
no diet, healthy eating, let growth use excess weight
post-puberty obesity treatment?
negative energy balance may be necessary
treatment strategies for diet for obesity?
- 15% protein
- 30% fat
- 55% carbs
when treating obesity a child should eat more? eat less?
- non fat milk, fish, poultry, fruit, vegetables, whole grains
- whole milk, red meat, eggs, sugary beverages, sugar, salt and fat
benefits of exercise?
- increases energy expenditure and metabolic rate
- lowers blood pressure
- suppresses appetite
- improves sleep
parents of obese children should promote?
- health foods
- serve water
- physical activity
three part role in treatment with schools?
- foods served
- exercise program
- classroom teaching
keeping record of food eaten and physical activity
what is crucial in the treatment of obesity?
encourages positive, realistic thinking in place of self-devastating thoughts
1 in ___ children are overweight in the US
compared to normal weight peers, obese children are
- advanced bone ages
- look older
- earlier sexual maturity
- high risk for chronic disease
4 stage approach of treating obesity? stage 1? 2? 3? 4?
- 1- prevention
- 2- structured weight management
- 3- comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention
- 4- tertiary care intervention
stage 4 in the 4 step approach for obesity is reserved for?
severely obese children
2 social support systems needed?
- parental involvement
- school programs
primetime for learning about healthy lifestyles?
study to evaluate the effectiveness of a school based dietary intervention
high 5 Alabama
2 model programs for nutrition intervention?
- the national fruit and vegetable program
- high 5 Alabama
provide nutritious meals to all child and reinforce nutrition education
child nutrition programs
states may require schools who serve needy populations to provide school breakfast that is 1/4 the DRI
school breakfast program
provides training, technical assistance, education or support to promote nutrition in schools
provides summer meals to areas where more than 50% of students from low income families
summer food service program