WHAP 14 REVIEW.txt
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WHAP 14 REVIEW.txt
WHAP Chapter14 Ch14 Review
WHAP Chapter 14 Review flashcards
Period during which nomads of central Asia impacted other global civilizations?
What type of society and culture were Mongols?
Herds - consisted of?
goats and sheep
Basics unit of Mongol society?
tribe, which was divided into kin-related clans
Leadership - from where?
elected by free men of group, as long as they could hold power
In 12th century - who defeated Quin kingdom of northern China?
Kabul khan led Mongol alliance
CK's.'s early life?
father poisoned, Temujin thrust into leadership, taken prisoner, escaped, joined more powerful chieftain, avenged, growing success and reputation, won allies, elected as Khagan p.318
In what year - CK elected Khagan?
Mongol military forces - entirely??
military units within the Mongol armies
Weaponry used by Mongol army?
bow and arrow, flaming/exploding arrows, gunpowder projectiles, bronze cannons
CK's first campaigns - where?
Tangut kingdom of Xi Xia, then attacked Quin Empire
Empire ruled by Muhammad Shan II (Muslim), overwhelmed gy Mongols 1220 p.310
What battle field tactic most frequent employed by Ck's forces?
pretended flight to draw enemy out followed by heavy cavalry attacks
Capitol of Mongol empire?
Religious policy of Mongols?
Chinggis: shamanistic but all religions tolerated
Aspects that were not positive under CK?
Following his (CK'S) death- who succeeded as Khagan?
Provision for admin. of his empire following CK's death?
1 of 4 regional subdivision of Mongol Empire after death of Chinggis Khan, south-central Russia
Which khanate undertook invasion of Mulsim heartland?
Political org of Russia - at time of Mongol invasion (13th c.)
divided into numerous petty Kingdoms centered on trading cities
Nature of Russian resistance?
Social impact of Mongol conquest of Russia?
Which Russian city profited most from Mongols?
Why - political dominance of Moscow under Mongol rule?
position as collector of tribute for Mongols and seat of Russian Orthodoxy
Battle of Kulikova?
princes of Moscow with other Russian vassals raised army, defeated forces of Golden Horde
what was the most significant impact of the Mongols on Russia?
resulting from isolation from Christian lands farther west, Mongol protect Russia from more powerful kingdoms, but was cut off key transformations from Renaissance and Reformation
Why did Mongols not pursue western Europe?
death of Khagan Ogedei forced Batu to withdrawin preparation for struggle for succession, satisfied with huge empire, found richer lands to plunder in Muslim empires
Ruler of Ikhan horde?
What significant impact did the Mongol conquest have on Islamic hearland?
destruction of cities from central Asia to the shores of the Mediterranean devastated focal points of Islamic civilization
Who defeated the Mongols in 1260?
Mamluks - slave dynasty of Egypt
Why did the khan of the Ilkhan horde not follow up on conquest of Is. heartland?
Mamluks entrenched and growing stronger, threatened by cousin, Berke, new khan of Golden Horde (Muslim), after succession struggle
founder of Yuan dynasty
Conquest of Song China - what is most significant?
so difficult, required more than 35 years p.325
What did Kubilai Khan change the name of the Mongol dynasty to?
Describe social order of #37?
Mongols - central Asian nomads/Muslim allies - north Chinese - south Chinese/minorities
How did KK maintain the separation of Mongols and Chinese?
Mongols forbidden to marry Chinese, only women from nomadic societies for harems, Chinese scholars forbidden to learn Mongol script
Major change in the administration of China under the Mongols?
Mongols and allies occupy most offices at highest level of bureaucracy, Chinese (north and south) ran bureaucracy at regional and local levels
Status of Mongolian women during Yuan dynasty?
aloof from Chinese culture (confucianism), no footbinding, held rights to property/control in household, freedom to move around, riding to hunt
Yuan policy with respect to religion during Mongol occupation?
interest in all religions, insisted on toleration
Two social groups that benefited from Yuan administration?
Muslims, Persians and Turks
What caused a decline in the military reputation of the Mongol Yuan dynasty?
rebuffs by military lords of Japan (twice), also defeats on expeditions to Vietnam and Java
Founders of Ming dynasty - from what Chinese social class?
Ju Yuanzhang from poor peasant family
Turkic nomadic leader - began a period of conquest - 1360's?
What are not exposed to the Turkic expansion of the 1360's?
Compare Turkic expansion to Mongol expansion (1360-1400)
didn't begin to compare in size, outdid in ferocity
Most critical of the shifts that allowed sedentary civilizations to dominate nomadic peoples after 15thc.?
devastation to nomadic populations caused by Black Death