NTD309 exam 2 (part 4)
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need in very small amounts
what kind of mineral is iron?
is iron organic or inorganic
most common deficiency in the world?
2 types of iron?
heme and nonheme
heme iron is found in?
animals and is more absorbable
non heme iron is found in?
plants and is not very absorbable
people who get their iron from plants need to?
up their intake by eating almost 1.8x the amt of iron
4 functions of iron?
- energy metabolism
- synthesizes DNA
tertiary 3D figure
iron is part of enzymes which?
make chemical reactions occur in body
an enzyme breaks down a ____ to ?
- 2 smaller things
enzymes need what to make chemical reactions go?
vitamins or minerals
iron dependent enzymes
family of enzymes dependent on iron
what do cytochromes do?
- participate in energy metabolism
- synthesize ATP
cytochromes participate in energy metabolism as to
carry electrons to electron transport chain
helpful free radical that kill off pathogens in body
too much iron can feed bacteria in gut
need to double intake of iron
vitamin C increases absorption
iron transport/storage order?
absorptive cell to blood stream to bone marrow
stores iron as ferratin
iron protein complex that travels through blood together
stored iron in absorptive cell
what happens every 3-5 days?
you loose absorptive cells and everything in it
live stores iron as ?
stage 1 iron deficiency?
iron stores are gone and you don't know you have it
stage 2 iron deficiency?
- transferring levels go down because theyre no needed and theres not enough iron to make it
- *don't know you have It
when you don't know you have it
stage 3 iron deficiency anemia?
- hemoglobin levels are down
- iron stores are gone
- transferrin levels are low and you don't have enough hemoglobin to make red blood cells
with stage 3 iron deficiency anemia you feel?
fatigued and bad, dry skin
2/3 or iron in body is
iron containing protein similar to hemoglobin but only found in muscle cells
energy metabolism is involved in?
amino acid and lipid metabolism in TCA cycle
excess iron can promote the production of?
iron is required for?
- immune system
women should have how much iron? men?
iron is essential but toxic at high levels so its highly regulated through
digestive, absorption, transport, storage and excretion
absorption rate of iron is?
heme is __ % absorpable
becomes part of cellular iron pool
non-heme is what percent absorbable?
for non-heme absorption is influenced by ? which reduces?
- stomach acid
- ferric iron to ferrous iron
increases iron absorption?
decreases iron absorption?
- phytates (grains)
- vegetable proteins
vegan iron absorption rate?
person with a typical western diet absorption rate?
iron deficiency is due to?
- low dietary intake
- inadequate absorption
- excessive blood loss
stage 3 is known as?
overt iron deficiency
stage 2 is where?
transferring levels increase
stage 1 is where?
depletion of iron stores
iron deficiency anemia outcomes?
- impaired intellectual development
- lead poisoning
- pregnancy complications
- impaired immune function
poor cognitive development, poor schools achievement and behavorial problems
impaired intellectual development in children
iron deficiency may increase the risk of
lead poisoning in children
severe anemia in pregnant women =
adverse pregnancy outcomes
iron is required to mount an effective?
people at risk for iron deficiency?
- infants and children
- pregnant women
- those with chronic blood loss and celiac disease
what foods provide heme iron?
- chicken liver
what foods provide non-heme iron?
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