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what are named areas of white matter in the brain?
- corpus callosum
- internal capsule
nerves coming from the brachial plexus and what do they do?
- musculocutaneous- upper arm
- median- flexor side of forearm and hand
- radial- extensor side of forearm and hand
- ulnar- intrinsic muscles of the hand
- axillary- shoulder
two sensory organs of propriception?
muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs
central structure monitors them? (organs of propriception)
monitored by the cerebellum
what parts of the brain modulate the raw motor activity of the precentral gyrus?
cerebellum and basal nuclei
what is synaptic plasticity?
ability of neurons to form new synaptic connections
what is a ganglion?
a collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
what is the importance of the thalamus?
it is the relay station of the brain. it routes all incoming signals to their proper destinations
12 functions of the hypothalamus?
- secretes hormones that control the pituitary gland
- makes hormones that are stored in the posterior pituitary
- changes heart rate
- changes blood pressure
- changes GI motility and secretion
- monitors blood sugar
- monitors amino acids
- monitors blood osmolarity
- monitors temperature, causes heat loss and gain, produces fever
- controls hunger, satiety, and thirst
- aids reticular formation in circadian rhythms
- aids limbic system in memory formation
function of the prefrontal cortex?
- control of emotions
where is limbic system?
a series of nuclei with connecting axon tracts circling from the temporal lobe, around the cingulate gyrus, into the front lobe and back
purpose of limbic system?
it contains the amygdala, the hippocampus, the olfactory center, the pre-frontal cortex, and some of the nuclei in the hypothalamus. it forms memories and emotion and produces pleasure, pain, revulsion, and longing
body functions that are controlled by the medulla?
heart rate and respiration, coughing, sneezing, gagging, vomiting
body functions that are controlled by the pons?
hearing, equilibrium, eye movements, facial expression, swallowing and taste
body functions that are controlled by the midbrain
focusing, tracking, pupil changes
body functions that are controlled by the cerebellum?
coordination, awareness of passage of time, visual tracking
body functions that are controlled by the reticular formation?
modulates pain, integrates all the senses, maintains alertness