Milk & cheese notecards
Card Set Information
Milk & cheese notecards
Milk & cheese notecards
In which 3 countries is there documents saying milk existed?
nutrient milk contains (4)
Which nutrients is it low in? (5)
Where does butter derive from?
Which 2 components are used in processed foods?
3 ways milk proteins are used in processed foods
-emulsifiers & stabilizers
What is casein protein used for in processed foods?
Emulsifiers & stabilizers
What is whey protein sued for in processed foods?
What is the milk sugar found in milk?
3 ways lactose is used
-browning of baked goods
What 6 things does milk contribute to in food?
How many grams of lactose is in an 8 oz cup?
12 grams of lactose
How many grams of protein are typically in each cup of milk (8 oz)?
8 grams per cup
What is the synonymous word for milk fat in milk?
What 3 things does milk fat contribute to?
What is the range of calories that is contained in each cup of milk?
Around how many grams of fat `is in a cup of milk?
8 grams of fat
How many mg of cholesterol is in whole milk?
How many mg of cholesterol is in reduced milk?
How many mg of cholesterol is in non-fat?
4 vitamins in milk
-tryptophan which is used to formulate niacin
4 minerals in milk
Around what percent does water make milk?
Color of milk) what 4 factors contribute to milk color?
-colloidally dispersed casein
*give it opaque appearence
-carotene in animal feeds
*provides yellowish tinge butter & cream
food additives) when did vitamin d fortification begin?
It began in 1930s to prevent rickets
food additives) when did vitamin A fortification begin?
food additives) rBGH, it is defined as a food additive?
food additives) what does rBGH do in a diary cattle?
Increases milk production by 10% in cattle
food additives) why does the book say that rBGH is not dangerous to us?
It is dissolved in our stomachs
Grades in milk) how are grades differentiated?
According to bacterial count
Grades in milk) which has the lowest bacterial count between grade a and b?
grade A has the lowest bacterial count
Grades in milk) which are the 2 milk grades for fat free dry milk ?
What must milk & milk products crossing state lines be?
Who is responsible for grading milks?
What did the Grade A milk ordinance order?
Who invented pasteurization?
What is the concept behind pasteurization?
Heating milk kills bacteria
Pasteurization) what is one sign that milk is safe?
When alkaline phosphatase no longer is active
Pasteurization) what temps do Ultra pasteurization uses?
Around 280 F for 2 seconds
Pasteurization) what is UHT?
ultrapasteurization combined with sterile packaging procedures
Pasteurization) 3 characteristics of UHT?
-can be stored w/o refrigeration up to 2 months
-extends shelf life by killing more bacteria
What is homogenization in milk?
Prevents separation of water and fat
What is mechanical process in homogenization?
Breaks up fat globules into smaller globules that do not clump together
*they become permanently dispersed in emulsion
What is creaming?
Separation of water & fat
Homogenized milk) coagulation and homogenized milk
Coagulates more which is good for puddings, sauces
Homogenized milk) what is this type of milk more prone to?
*can be reduced by pasteurization
Where can creaming be usually seen in?
Fluid milk & cream) what percent of milk is produced this way in the US?
1/2 of all milk produced in the US
Fluid milk & cream) what are the 3 major categories of fresh fluid cows milk?
-reduced fat & low fat
-fat free or nonfat
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: what percent of milk fat does whole milk have?
-3.25% milk fat
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: what percent of MSNF does whole milk have?
What is MSNF?
Total solids minus the fat
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: what percent of milk fat does reduced fat contain?
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: what percent of milk fat does low fat contain?
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: minimum MSNF for reduced fat & low fat milk
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: which vitamin fortification is required in reduced and low fat milk?
Vitamin A fortification
*D is optional
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: percent of milk fat in fat-free or nonfat milk?
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: minimum MSNF in fat-free or nonfat milk?
Fluid milk & cream) fresh fluid cow milk: vitamin fortification required in fat-free or nonfat?
*d is optional
Fluid milk) 5 examples of animal that provide milk
Flavored fluid milks) is chocolate milk pasteurized?
Flavored fluid milks) if chocolate milk has liquid chocolate, what percent does it comprise of?
Flavored fluid milks) if chocolate milk contains cocoa and sugar , how much percent of both?
1% cocoa & 5% sugar
Flavored fluid milks) calories in whole chocolate milk?
Flavored fluid milks) calories in reduced fat chocolate milk?
Flavored fluid milks) calories in low fat in chocolate milk?
Flavored fluid milks) is eggnog pasteurized?
Flavored fluid milks) percent of milk fat in eggnog?
6-8% milk fat
Flavored fluid milks) percent of MSNF in eggnog?
Flavored fluid milks) homogenized mixture in eggnog? (6)
Fluid milk) does imitation milk contain diary?
Little to no diary
Fluid milk) does imitation milk contain lactose?
No, it is lactose free
Fluid milk) what's downside with imitation milk?
It has inferior nutrient content compared to cow fresh milk
Fluid milk) what's significant about ingredients of imitation milk?
Lots or nutrients normally found in milk are replaced with outside nutrients like vegetable oils.
Fluid milk) does filled milk contain cholesterol?
Fluid milk) what is milk fat replaced by in filled milk?
Fluid milk) how many mg/cup of sodium does low sodium milk have
Fluid milk) Which type of milk has same nutrients as cow fresh milk?
Fluid milk) what is low lactose milk?
It contains reduced lactose
Fluid milk) plant based: does soy milk contain lactose?
Fluid milk) plant based: when should soy milk be given to children?
When the soy milk is fortified
Fluid milk) plant based: does rice milk contain lactose?
Fluid milk) plant based: gluten and rice milk
Some rice milk may contain gluten due to rice milk derived from grains
Fluid milk) plant based: what is rice milk typically derived off?
Fluid milk) plant based: what is almond milk made up off?
Fluid milk) plant based: what is hemp milk?
Mixed water with crusted seeds of the hemp plant
Fluid milk) plant based: what is used to make grain milk?
Oats, barley, wheat, or rye mixed with water
Fluid milk) plant based: is coconut milk a milk?
Fluid milk) plant based: what is coconut milk used for?
Cream sub in some recipes
Canned fluid milks) 4 types of canned fluid milks
-evaporate fat free
Canned fluid milks) percent of water evaporated foinf in milk to create evaporated milk?
60% of water in milk
Canned fluid milks) is evaporated milk fortified with any vitamins?
Canned fluid milks) how many calories does evaporate milk have per cup?
Canned fluid milks) how many grams of fats does evaporated milk have per cup?
19 grams of fat
Canned fluid milks) how is evaporated fat free milk produced from?
Canned fluid milks) how many calories per cup does evaporated fat free contain?
Canned fluid milks) how many grams of fat does evaporated fat free milk have per cup?
.5 grams of fat
Canned fluid milks) what do sweetened condensed milk contain?
High amount of sugars that make it ideal for desserts
2 types of dry milk
Dry milk) taste of nonfat dried
Inferior to fluid milk in taste
Dry milk) shelf life of nonfat dried
Up to one year
Dry milk) what is nonfat dried ideal for?
Making batter and douhgs
Dry milk) why does nonfat dried have a higher shelf life?
Lack of fat
Dry milk) how is instant made?
By steaming nonfat dried milk to steam and then dried
Dry milk) what is agglomerate?
Particles gather into a mass or a ball
Cultured milk products ) what is curd?
Coagulated or thickened milk
Cultured milk products ) what are the 2 types of bacteria?
-lactic acid procuring bacteria
-propionic acid producing bacteria
Cultured milk products ) if microbial culture is already present then...
Its is not listed as ingredient on label
Cultured milk products ) if cultures are added during production process then,
The term cultured followed by name of substance must be listed as ingredient
Cultured milk products ) what was buttermilk originally?
The liquid left over after cream has been chilled and churned to produce butter
Cultured milk products ) percent of milk fat for buttermilk?
Contain less than .5% milk fat
Cultured milk products ) msnf percent in buttermilk
What is clabbering?
Thickening of milk