Joints (Articulation)

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Author:
jaclynruth
ID:
287067
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Joints (Articulation)
Updated:
2014-10-26 02:16:19
Tags:
joints articulation norcocollege sternberg anatomy physiology 2a
Folders:
biology,science,anatomy,physiology
Description:
joints classified functionally and structurally
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  1. What is a Joint?
    • Also known as articulation
    • The site of contact between bones or between cartilage and bone
  2. What are the primary functions of Joints?
    • Movement (through a series of levers for complex motion)
    •      - Joints
    •      - Muscle Attachments
    •      - Bones
    • Growth
    •      1. Certain cranial/facial joints expand as the brain grows to full size.
    •      2. Temporary zones of cartilage found between the epiphysis and diaphysis of certain bones (growth of the bone itself)
  3. What are the 2 methods of joint classification?
    • 1. Functional Classification
    •      - Synarthroses  (immovable)
    •      - Amphiarthroses (slightly movable)
    •      - Diarthrowses (moveable)
    • 2. Structural Classification
    •      - Fibrous
    •      - Cartilaginous
    •      - Synovial
  4. Describe Fibrous Joints.
    • Lack a joint cavity
    • United by fibrous connective tissue
    • Allow little or no movement,
    •      Either Synarthroses or Amphiarthroses
    • Three Types:
    • 1. Sutures
    • 2. Gomphoses (synarthroses)
    • 3. Syndesmoses (amphiarthroses)
  5. Describe the type of Fibrous Joint known as Sutures.
    • Synarthroses (immoveable)
    • Have saw-like (serrated)
    • --or tooth-like (dendrite or denticulate) processes
    • Ex. bones of skull
  6. Describe the type of Fibrous Joint known as Gomphoses.
    • Synarthroses (immoveable)
    • Peg and socket joint
    • Ex. teeth in alveolar joint
  7. Describe the type of Fibrous Joint known as Syndesmoses.
    • Amphiarthroses (slightly moveable)
    • Structurally similar to a suture
    • Bound together by an interosseus ligament
    • Ex. distal tibiofibular joint
  8. Describe Cartilaginous Joints.
    • Lack a joint cavity
    • Bones united by cartilage
    • Functionally resemble fibrous joints
    • Synarthroses and Amphiarthroses
    • Two Types:
    • 1. Symphyses
    • 2. Synchondroses
  9. Describe the type of Cartilaginous Joint known as Symphyses.
    • Amphiarthroses (relatively immoveable)
    • Joining bones united by a plate of fibrocartilage
    • Ex. pubic symphysis
    • -between 2 pubic bones
    • -adjacent bones held together by fibrocartilage
    • -joint between the 2 adjacent vertebrae is a symphysis
    • -During childbirth, displacement occurs in female during childbirth
  10. Describe the type of Cartilaginous Joint known as Synchondroses.
    • Synarthroses (immoveable)
    • "Temporary" joint, not permanent
    • Ex. epiphyseal cartilaginous plate
  11. Describe Synovial Joints.
    • Diarthroses (fully moveable)
    • A synovial cavity between 2 articulating bones
    • Opposing surfaces covered by hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage), but lacks blood vessels and nerves (avascular)
    • Nutrients are derived from synovial fluid and blood vessels of marrow spaces
    • Consists of:
    •      - synovial cavity
    •      - fibrous capsule
    •      - synovial fluid
    •      - meniscus
    • Classified by Structure: Simple, compound, complex
    • And also classified by Motion: Uniaxial, Biaxial, Multiaxial
  12. Synovial Cavity
    • Space that surrounds the bones of a synovial joint
    • Lubricated by synovial fluid
  13. Fibrous Capsule
    • Usually completely surrounds synovial joint
    • Ligaments make up part of the wall of the joint capsule
    • Capsule prevents dislocation and has blood vessels and nerves
    • CT fibers give strength and flexibility to the joint
    • Variable range of motion
    • Fibers attach to periosteum
    • Ligaments limit excessive motion of joint, permits normal range of motion but strength resists overextension
  14. Synovial Fluid
    • Transparent viscous clear-yellow fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities, bursae and tendon sheaths
    • Derived from plasma
    • Cell types: macrophages, synovial cells, WBCs, lymphocytes
  15. Meniscus
    • Aka articular disc
    • Made of fibrocartilage
    • Adds stability to the joint
    • May divide a joint cavity into 2 compartments with their own synovial membranes
    • Function:
    •      - Spreads synovial fluid
    •      - Protects articular cartilage
    •      - shock absorption
  16. What are the 3 types of Synovial Joints organized by structure?
    • 1. Simple
    •      - 2 articulating surfaces
    •      - Ex. Distal interchangeable joint
    • 2. Compound
    •      - More than 2 articulating surfaces
    •      Ex. Humerus articulating with radius and ulna
    •      - Also, radius and ulna articulating with eachother (all in same capsule)
    • 3. Complex
    •      - Has meniscus or articular disc
    •      Ex. knee
  17. What are the 3 types of Synovial Joints organized by motion?
    • 1. Uniaxial (1 plane)
    •      - movement about a single axis
    •      Ex. knee, elbow
    • 2. Bilateral (2 planes)
    •      - movement about 2 perpendicular axes
    •      Ex. wrist, ankle
    • 3. Multiaxial (3 planes)
    •      - movement about 3 perpendicular axes
    •      Ex. shoulder, ball & sockets, hip

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