Ch.8 Applied Psychology
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Who promoted the application of psychology to education?
Which book supported the use of Psychology in the classroom and who wrote it?
"Talks to Teachers about the uses of psychology in the classroom" by William James
What is Psychological Testing and who came up with this method?
a study of mental processes concerned with human abilities rather than content of consciousness. Developed by James Cattell
What began to characterize the new American Psychology?
Where did the focus lie with statistical comparisons?
studies of large group of subjects rather than individual subjects
What were Cattell's tests focused on and why were they considered invalid?
psychomotor and the tests showed a low correlation with academic performance for a bad predictor of college achievement
What did Cattell organize and what did it provide?
Psychological Corporation that provided psychological services to industry
Who created the first true test of mental ability and what did it test?
Alfred Binet and it tested memory, attention, imagination, and comprehension
What was the first intelligence test called?
Binet-Simon Measuring Scale for Intelligence
What is the intelligence quotient?
the ratio of mental age to chronological age (mental age/chronological age) X 100
What did WWI and group testing lead to?
the development of the alpha(literate) and beta(illiterate) group intelligence tests
What is a personal data sheet and who created it?
self report inventory that checked the nervous systems of potential army recruits to weed out the neurotic recruits (created by Robert Woodworth)
What helped promote public acceptance of the testing movement?
Psychological testing in the war effort
What concept did the public education system get reorganized around?
What was used to weed out inferior immigrants at Ellis Island and by who?
Binet test by Goddard
How was the argument of unfair testing at Ellis Island started?
combination of army alpha and beta test results and scores being attributed to environment rather than race
Who began the field of clinical psychology?
What was Witmer interested in assessing and treating in schoolchildren?
learning and behavioral problems, a study now called school psychology
What did Witmer believe genetic factors were responsible for and what were they actually responsible for?
initially behavioral and cognitive disturbances, later realized to be environmental factors
How was clinical psychology implemented during WWII?
for the treatment of emotionally disturbed soldiers
How did the VA hospital system utilize psychologists?
for the treatment of more than 40,000 veterans diagnosed with psychiatric problems
How are consumers considered in relation to advertising work?
Irrational beings that are subject to heighten consumer suggestibility involving emotion, sympathy, and sentimentality
What does the law of suggestibility recommend?
use of command ads such as "Use Pears Soap"
Based on the Hawthorne studies and Organizational issues, where were profound effects on productivity discovered to originate from?
What field did the Hawthorne studies and Organizational issues initiate?
What does forensic psychology deal with?
Psychology and the law
How did Munsterberg differ from Freud on the issue of mental health?
- mental illness was really a behavioral maladjustment problem, not something attributable to underlying unconscious conflicts
- Munsterberg believed there was no subconscious
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