Ch17T5-8

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Author:
aphy101
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287106
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Ch17T5-8
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2015-04-05 19:45:05
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profmwinston
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Chapter 17 Topics 5-8 Digestive
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  1. Masses of lymphatic tissue in the throat that help protect the mouth from infections.
    Tonsils
  2. What are the 3 tonsils?
    1) Lingual 2) Palatine 3) Pharyngeal
  3. These tonsils are located on the root of the tongue.
    Lingual Tonsils
  4. These tonsils are located in the back of the mouth on either side of the palate.
    Palatine Tonsils
  5. These tonsils are located on the posterior wall of the pharynx, above the border of the soft palate.
    Pharyngeal Tonsils
  6. What are the adenoids?
    Also known as the pharyngeal tonsils, if they enlarge and block the passage between the nasal cavity and the pharynx, they may be removed
  7. What are the 4 types of teeth?
    1) Incisors 2) Cuspids 3) Bicuspids 4) Molars
  8. These teeth are specialized to bite off large pieces of food.
    Incisors
  9. These teeth are specialized to grasp and tear food.
    Cuspids
  10. These 2 types of teeth are both specialized to grind food.
    Bicuspid and Molar
  11. What is the difference between primary teeth and secondary teeth?
    Primary teeth are the first set of teeth to develop (10 of them) Secondary teeth push the primary teeth out of their sockets and are permanent (32 of them)
  12. The gums
    Gingiva
  13. The portion of a tooth above the gum line.
    Crown
  14. The portion of a tooth below the gum line.
    Root
  15. This substance mainly consists of calcium salts and covers the crown of the tooth.
    Enamel
  16. Living cellular tissue beneath enamel.
    Dentin
  17. A central area located in the crown of the tooth and contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue, collectively called pulp.
    Pulp Cavity
  18. A tubular passageway that extends into the root of the tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves.
    Root canal
  19. A bonelike material that surrounds the root of the tooth.
    Cementum
  20. A fibrous structure that surrounds cementum and anchors the tooth to the jaw.
    Periodontal Ligament
  21. The bone of the jaw to which a tooth is attached.
    Alveolar Process
  22. What is the purpose of salivary glands?
    They secrete saliva, which moistens food particles, helps bind them, and begins the chemical digestion of carbohydrates.
  23. What are the 3 major salivary glands?
    1) Parotid Glands 2) Submandibular Glands 3) Sublingual Glands
  24. These salivary glands are located anterior and inferior to each ear and secrete a water fluid rich in amylase.
    Parotid Glands
  25. These salivary glands are on the floor of the mouth on the inside surfaces of the lower jaws and secrete serous fluid.
    Submandibular Glands
  26. These salivary glands are on the floor of the mouth inferior to the tongue and secrete mucus.
    Sublingual Glands
  27. What are the 2 secretory cells found in salivary glands?
    1) Serous Cell 2) Mucous Cell
  28. These secretory cells of salivary glands produce a watery fluid that contains the digestive enzyme amylase.
    Serous Cells
  29. These secretory cells of salivary glands produce mucus, which helps bind food particles and acts as a lubricant during swallowing.
    Mucous Cells
  30. What does salivary amylase digest?
    Carbohydrates; it splits starch and glycogen molecules into disaccharides.
  31. What affect does the SNS and PNS have on the salivary glands?
    SNS stimulates the glands to secrete a small volume of viscous saliva; PNS stimulates the glands to secrete a large volume of watery saliva
  32. This organ is a passageway for food, and its muscular wall propels food from the pharynx to the stomach.
    Esophagus
  33. This structure, made of circular muscle fibers, is located where the esophagus and stomach join, and functions to prevent regurgitation of food from the stomach back to the esophagus.
    Lower Esophageal Sphincter
  34. A J-shaped, pouch-like organ that receives food from the esophagus, mixes it with gastric juice, initiates the digestion of proteins, carries on limited absorption, and moves food into the small intestine.
    Stomach
  35. Thick gastric folds in the lining of the stomach.
    Rugae
  36. What are the 4 parts of the stomach?
    1) Cardia 2) Fundus 3) Body 4) Pylorus
  37. This part of the stomach is a small area near the esophageal opening.
    Cardia
  38. This part of the stomach is a temporary storage area and sometimes fills with swallowed air, making a gastric air bubble.
    Fundus
  39. This is the main part of the stomach.
    Body
  40. This part of the stomach is the narrow region that is continuous with the small intestine.
    Pylorus
  41. In the pylorus of the stomach, the _____ is a  funnel-shaped portion that narrows to become the _____ as it approaches the small intestine.
    Pyloric Antrum; Pyloric Canal
  42. This muscle is located between the pylorus and the duodenum and controls what leaves the stomach by contracting the pyloric opening.
    Pyloric Sphincter
  43. After food exits the stomach thru the pyloric sphincter it enters the _____ of the small intestine.
    Duodenum
  44. The surface of the mucous membrane that forms the inner lining of the stomach is studded with many small openings called what?
    Gastric Pits
  45. Food substances that have been mixed with gastric juice (partially digested food) that get pushed thru the stomach, by perialistic waves, into the small intestine.
    Chyme
  46. Name the 2 sphincter that control what enters and leaves the stomach.
    Lower Esophageal Sphincter (controls what enters); Pyloric Sphincter (controls what leaves)
  47. What is the main digestive function of the stomach?
    It secretes acid and enzymes, and mixes food with the secretions to begin enzymatic digestion of proteins

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