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- a collection of sheets of any material fastened together at the back or spine and usually protected by covers.
- Medieval codices are constructed of gatherings of conjoint leaves
the gatherings and/or leaves which make up a manuscript
a piece of parchment folded in half to produce four writing surfaces
the little booklet made out of a stack of conjoint leaves all sewn together through the fold
- the smallest size of manuscript and the icelandic way of doing it.
- A duodecimo manuscript is made from pieces of parchment that are cut into sixths, and then each sixth is folded in half, which divides the piece of parchment into 12
flesh side/ hair side
- Parchment often retains the characteristic features of the animal skin it was made from. The hair side of a piece of parchment is the side that was the outside of the animal, as can be seen from the hair follicles.
- The flesh side of a piece of parchment was the inner side of the animal's skin.
The system of identifying the leaves of a parchment manuscript by giving each leaf a number and additionally specifying recto to identify the leaf's upper side or verso for the lower side
the upper side/ page on the right
the lower side/ page on the left
the insertion of a single leaf into a gathering
- lines which indicate where the writing is to be put down
- the lines could be scored with a drypoint (stylus) or drawn with ink or a lead plummet
A heading at the start of a unit of text, such as a chapter
- A size of manuscript
- quarters then folded in half- which divides the parchment into 8
parchment made from calf skin
- the practice of making small holes in a piece of parchment to establish where the guidelines for the writing will be drawn
- Also known as ruling
a lead point which could be used for drawing, annotation and ruling