Contrary to popular belief, _____ are a sign that body temperature is rising.
____ are circulating granulocytes that comprise about 0.5-1% of our leukocyte population; max cells in connective tissues are functionally similar.
____ are chemical signals released from phagocytes (such as Interleuken-1) that trigger fever.
The complement system of proteins in action is described as a _____, because each step triggers the next step.
T Lymphocytes were named "T" because they mature in the _____.
Increased numbers of eosinophils indicate _____ or parasitic worm infections.
Lymphoid tissues in the oropharynx include _____ and adenoids.
Acquired immunity is aimed at one particular microbe, takes time to develop after exposure, involves cells called lymphocytes and special tailor-made protein molecules called _____.
_____ ______ are masses of lymphoid tissues scattered around the body, but more concentrated in the neck armpits, and groin.
Neutrophils and macrophages are both capable of ____ ("cell eating") to rid the tissues of foreign invaders.
Cells of the immune system include blood and ___ tissues.
Neutrophils are also called PMNs because of the numerous forms of their nucleus; PMN stands for ______ leukocytes.
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are leukocytes grouped together as _______.
_____ (also called platelets) are fragments of cytoplasm pinched off of a large cell in the red bone marrow called a megakaryocytic.
Fever is a _____ physiological response to microbe invasion; an increased in body temperature helps to denature proteins of bacteria and viruses.
The _____ _____ refers to the ciliated mucous membrane lining the trachea and its ability to move trapped particles upward.
Damaged ____ cells (in loose areolar connective tissue) release histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins to initiate inflammation following tissue injury.
Nonspecific defense mechanisms are _____ (inborn).
GALT stand for _____-associated lymphoid tissue.
Natural killer cells release granules of perforin and granzyme onto their target cell; perforin enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates _____ enzymes that cause death of the cell.
An "oxygen _____' occurs inside the phagolysosome to activate digestion of its contents.
Unbroken ____ is a great germ barrier because it is thick, keratinized and cells are tightly spot-welded together by desmosomes.
Mast cells and basophils release granules of histamine, leukotrienes and _____.
_____ (redness) is one of the signs of inflammation; due to increased blood flow to the site of infection.
____ is the study of how diseases develop; determining signs and symptoms of diseases.
Peyer's patches of the small intestine form the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, abbreviated _____.
Secondary lymphoid tissues include the tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, appendix and ______.
Localized heat (aka ____) is one of the signs of inflammation.
____ is released by glands in the skin; its salt content causes bacteria to shrivel up and die.
____ membranes line all entrances and exits of the body; respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.
55% of blood volume is _____, which is over 90% water.
A cell organelle called a _____ contains numerous enzymes called acid hydrolases; during phagocytosis it fuses with a phagosome to form a phagolysosome to help digest the engulfed microbe.
A neutrophil nucleus has 3, 4 or 5 _____.
_____ are the first cells to arrive at the site of infection because they arrive by blood; they are voracious phagocytes and engulf so many bacteria that they die and become the major component of pus.
During phagocytosis, the membrane-bound sac containing the microbe or particle following ingestion is called a _____.
____ is a localized physiological response to any type of tissue injury.
The ____ is the part of the brain that controls body temperature; when it detects pyrogens, it "resets" they body temperature, resulting in fever.
____ is composed mostly of dead neutrophils at the site of infection.
____ is the study of the cause of diseases.
____ glands of the skin release sebum (a fatty secretion) that maintains a fairly low pH (4-6) on the skin surface.
Inflammation is a _____ physiological response to any type of tissue injury.
_____ is a result of complement-fixation where fragments of complement proteins bind to a bacterial capsule to promote phagocytosis of the microbe; actually means to "prepare for dinner".
Secondary lymphoid tissues include the tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, _____ and spleen.
A ____ is a stem cell in bone marrow that continually divides and gives rise to all of the blood cell types.
Degranulation of a mast cell or basophil initiates _____.
_____ is an antiviral cytokine made by virus-infected cells; it is host (species) specific, but not virus specific.
_____ is the study of the spread of disease in a population.
_____ resistance is the least understood type of disease resistance; it includes species, racial, sexual, and individual levels.
____ refers to neutrophils squeezing through capillary walls to reach the site of infection.
_____ are chemical messages released by cells to communicate with other cells; examples include lymphokines released by lymphocytes, monotones released by monocytes, and interferon released by virally infected cells.
When neutrophils adhere to the capillary walls nearest to tissue injury it is called ______.
Fixed macrophages are located in lymphoid tissues where they clean and filter wastes; examples include the _____ in connective tissues, kupffer cells in liver tissues, and microglia in nerve tissue.
____ macrophages migrate to the site of infection to phagocytize remaining invaders and any injured host cells.
Histamine causes ______ capillary permeability.
Lymphocytes and monocytes are leukocytes grouped together as _____.
____ is the end point of fever; marked by vasodilation and profuse sweating.
____ refers to invasion and growth of pathogens in a host.
_____ are a granulocytes that comprise about 20-25% of the leukocyte population; B varieties produce antibodies and T varieties are involved in cellular immunity.
A total white blood cell count of 2,500/ml is a condition called ______.
Blood _____ with fibrinogen removed is referred to as blood serum.
A ____ white blood cell count calculates the percentages of the different types of leukocytes; a change in percentage may indicate an infection or disease.
_____ (swelling) is one sign of inflammation; due to increased plasma leakage at the site of infection.
_____ are granulocytes that make up 2-4% of the leukocyte population; percentage increased in the presence of parasitic worms and during allergic reactions.
During inflammation, excess plasma leaks out of the local capillary beds and stimulates stretch receptors, resulting in _____.
A primary lymphoid tissue called the _____ gland is located in the upper thoracic cavity until about age 21.
_____ is a defense system consisting of serum proteins that helps by promoting phagocytosis, initiating inflammation and causing cytolysis of foreign cells.
One innate immune response is ____; forceful outward movement of air from the nasal passageways.
____ is the main protein of epidermis that makes it a tough, waterproof layer.
_____ immunity is amines at one particular microbe, takes time to develop after exposure, and involves trained armies of cells called lymphocytes and antibody molecules.
GALT stands for gut- _____ lymphoid tissue.
Sebaceous glands of the skin release _____ (a fatty secretion) that maintains a fairly low pH(4-6) on the skin surface.
____ _____ cells kill any antibody-coated cell by releasing granules of perforin and granzyme onto the cell; perforin enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes that cause apoptosis of the cell.
In 1882, Elie ____ observed and named phagocytosis and proposed the idea that it occurs in our bodies to destroy germs!
_____ refers to phagocyte migration to the site of infection by detecting chemical signals.
B lymphocytes mature in the ____ _____ ____ and in GALT.
Red Bone Marrow
____ are white blood cells.
Natural killer cells release granules of perforin and ____ onto their target cell; perforin enables ____ to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes that cause apoptosis of the cell.
The ____ is a big cell in the red bone marrow that fragments repeatedly to form thrombocytes (platelets).
____ cells in loose areolar connective tissue are functionally similar to basophils in the blood; degranulation initiates inflammation.
It is not a good idea to take ____ during a viral illness because it inhibits interferon production.
Natural killer cells release granules of ______ and granzyme onto their target cell; _______ enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes that cause apoptosis of the cell.
____ are disease causing organisms that have special properties enabling them to invade the body successfully.
A total white blood cell count of 18,000/ml is a condition called _____.
GALT tissue in birds is called the Bursa of Fabricius; in humans, it is called _____ _____.
____ are granulocytes that make up 60-70% of the leukocyte population' great mobility and phagocyte activity; also called PMNs because of the varied shape of their nucleus.
Activation of caspase enzymes results in ______; sometimes it is genetically triggered and results in 'programmed cell death.'
When circulating monocytes leave the blood and enter tissues, they become ______.
Fixed macrophages are located in lymphoid tissues where they clean and filter wastes; examples include histiocytes in connective tissues. Kuppffer cells in liver tissue, and _____ in nerve tissue.
____ are circulating leukocytes that become macrophages when they leave the blood and enter the connective tissues.
_____ constriction of surface vessels occurs during development of fever, but ____ dilation occurs after the crisis to help bring the temperature back down to normal.
B lymphocytes were originally discovered in gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue in birds called the ____ ___ ____; similar to our peer's patches.
Bursa of Fabraicius
Neutrophils and macrophages respond toward chemical signals of garaged tissues; this is called _____ chemotaxis.
____ is an antibacterial enzyme found in saliva, mucus, and tears.
____ are the most numerous blood cells, averaging 4-6 million/ml of blood.
Complement is a defense system consisting of serum proteins that helps by promoting phagocytosis initiating inflammation and causing _____ of foreign cells.
We have two important ____ responses to tissue injury or infection; Inflammation is localized while fever is systemic.
Opsonization is a result of complement-fixation where fragments of complement proteins bind to a bacterial _____ to promote phagocytosis; actually means to "prepare for dinner."
Fixed macrophages are located in lymphoid tissues where they clean and filter wastes; examples include histiocytes in connective tissues, _____ cells in liver tissue, and microglia in nerve tissue.
____ is a process of engulfing an invading microbe that includes adsorption, ingestion, digestion and egestion.
____ occurs when infection results in a change of health.
Acquired immunity is also referred to as ____ because it is directed at one particular invader.
The release of histamine and other chemicals from mast cells or basophils is called ______.
Mast cells and basophils release granules of histamine, _____ and prostaglandins.
Innate immunity (aka ____ immunity) is inborn and works against many foreign invaders; it involves physical barriers, physiological responses such as fever and inflammation, and phagocytes.
____ is a sign of inflammation caused by increased pressure on nerve endings due to edema.
One innate immune response is _____; a forceful upward and outward movement of air from the lower respiratory tract.
____ is the study of disease, including the cause, the manner in which it develops, and its effects on the body.
____ is a systemic physiological response to microbe invasion; an increase in body temperature helps to denature proteins of bacteria and viruses.
_____ macrophages are located in lymphoid tissues where they clean and filter wastes; examples include histiocytes in connective tissues. Kupffer cells in liver tissue, and microglia in nerve tissue.
Lymphoid tissues in the oropharynx include tonsils and ____.
Increased numbers of eosinophils indicated allergies or parasitic ____ infection.
A narrow ____ joins each lobe of a neutrophil's nucleus to the next lobe.