Microbiology

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Author:
kaori
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287127
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2014-10-30 10:25:30
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Nonspecific Innate Host Defenses
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Nonspecific (Innate) Host Defenses
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  1. Contrary to popular belief, _____ are a sign that body temperature is rising.
    Chills
  2. ____ are circulating granulocytes that comprise about 0.5-1% of our leukocyte population; max cells in connective tissues are functionally similar.
    Basophils
  3. ____ are chemical signals released from phagocytes  (such as Interleuken-1) that trigger fever.
    Pyrogens
  4. The complement system of proteins in action is described as a _____, because each step triggers the next step.
    Cascade
  5. T Lymphocytes were named "T" because they mature in the _____.
    Thymus
  6. Increased numbers of eosinophils indicate _____ or parasitic worm infections.
    Allergies
  7. Lymphoid tissues in the oropharynx include _____ and adenoids.
    Tonsils
  8. Acquired immunity is aimed at one particular microbe, takes time to develop after exposure, involves cells called lymphocytes and special tailor-made protein molecules called _____.
    Antibodies
  9. _____ ______ are masses of lymphoid tissues scattered around the body, but more concentrated in the neck armpits, and groin.
    Lymph Nodes
  10. Neutrophils and macrophages are both capable of ____ ("cell eating") to rid the tissues of foreign invaders.
    Phagocytosis
  11. Cells of the immune system include blood and ___ tissues.
    Lymphoid
  12. Neutrophils are also called PMNs because of the numerous forms of their nucleus; PMN stands for ______ leukocytes.
    Polymorphonuclear
  13. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are leukocytes grouped together as _______.
    Granulocytes
  14. _____ (also called platelets) are fragments of cytoplasm pinched off of a large cell in the red bone marrow called a megakaryocytic.
    Thrombocytes
  15. Fever is a _____ physiological response to microbe invasion; an increased in body temperature helps to denature proteins of bacteria and viruses.
    Systemic
  16. The _____ _____ refers to the ciliated mucous membrane lining the trachea and its ability to move trapped particles upward.
    Ciliary Escalator
  17. Damaged ____ cells (in loose areolar connective tissue) release histamine, leukotrienes and prostaglandins to initiate inflammation following tissue injury.
    Mast
  18. Nonspecific defense mechanisms are _____ (inborn).
    Innate
  19. GALT stand for _____-associated lymphoid tissue.
    Gut
  20. Natural killer cells release granules of perforin and granzyme onto their target cell; perforin enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates _____ enzymes that cause death of the cell.
    Caspase
  21. An "oxygen _____' occurs inside the phagolysosome to activate digestion of its contents.
    Burst
  22. Unbroken ____ is a great germ barrier because it is thick, keratinized and cells are tightly spot-welded together by desmosomes.
    Skin
  23. Mast cells and basophils release granules of histamine, leukotrienes and _____.
    Prostaglandins
  24. _____ (redness) is one of the signs of inflammation; due to increased blood flow to the site of infection.
    Erythema
  25. ____ is the study of how diseases develop; determining signs and symptoms of diseases.
    Pathogenesis
  26. Peyer's patches of the small intestine form the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, abbreviated _____.
    GALT
  27. Secondary lymphoid tissues include the tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, appendix and ______.
    Spleen
  28. Localized heat (aka ____) is one of the signs of inflammation.
    Calor
  29. ____ is released by glands in the skin; its salt content causes bacteria to shrivel up and die.
    Sweat
  30. ____ membranes line all entrances and exits of the body; respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.
    Mucous
  31. 55% of blood volume is _____, which is over 90% water.
    Plasma
  32. A cell organelle called a _____ contains numerous enzymes called acid hydrolases; during phagocytosis it fuses with a phagosome to form a phagolysosome to help digest the engulfed microbe.
    Lysosome
  33. A neutrophil nucleus has 3, 4 or 5 _____.
    Lobes
  34. _____ are the first cells to arrive at the site of infection because they arrive by blood; they are voracious phagocytes and engulf so many bacteria that they die and become the major component of pus.
    Neutrophils
  35. During phagocytosis, the membrane-bound sac containing the microbe or particle following ingestion is called a _____.
    Phagosome
  36. ____ is a localized physiological response to any type of tissue injury.
    Inflammation
  37. The ____ is the part of the brain that controls body temperature; when it detects pyrogens, it "resets" they body temperature, resulting in fever.
    Hypothalamus
  38. ____ is composed mostly of dead neutrophils at the site of infection.
    Pus
  39. ____ is the study of the cause of diseases.
    Etiology
  40. ____ glands of the skin release sebum (a fatty secretion) that maintains a fairly low pH (4-6) on the skin surface.
    Sebaceous
  41. Inflammation is a _____ physiological response to any type of tissue injury.
    Localized
  42. _____ is a result of complement-fixation where fragments of complement proteins bind to a bacterial capsule to promote phagocytosis of the microbe; actually means to "prepare for dinner".
    Opsonization
  43. Secondary lymphoid tissues include the tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, _____ and spleen.
    Appendix
  44. A ____ is a stem cell in bone marrow that continually divides and gives rise to all of the blood cell types.
    Hemocytoblast
  45. Degranulation of a mast cell or basophil initiates _____.
    Inflammation
  46. _____ is an antiviral cytokine made by virus-infected cells; it is host (species) specific, but not virus specific.
    Interferon
  47. _____ is the study of the spread of disease in a population.
    Epidemiology
  48. _____ resistance is the least understood type of disease resistance; it includes species, racial, sexual, and individual levels.
    Genetic
  49. ____ refers to neutrophils squeezing through capillary walls to reach the site of infection.
    Diapedesis
  50. _____ are chemical messages released by cells to communicate with other cells; examples include lymphokines released by lymphocytes, monotones released by monocytes, and interferon released by virally infected cells.
    Cytokines
  51. When neutrophils adhere to the capillary walls nearest to tissue injury it is called ______.
    Margination
  52. Fixed macrophages are located in lymphoid tissues where they clean and filter wastes; examples include the _____ in connective tissues, kupffer cells in liver tissues, and microglia in nerve tissue.
    Histiocytes
  53. ____ macrophages migrate to the site of infection to phagocytize remaining invaders and any injured host cells.
    Wandering
  54. Histamine causes ______ capillary permeability.
    Increased
  55. Lymphocytes and monocytes are leukocytes grouped together as _____.
    Agranulocytes
  56. ____ is the end point of fever; marked by vasodilation and profuse sweating.
    Crisis
  57. ____ refers to invasion and growth of pathogens in a host.
    Infection
  58. _____ are a granulocytes that comprise about 20-25% of the leukocyte population; B varieties produce antibodies and T varieties are involved in cellular immunity.
    Lymphosytes
  59. A total white blood cell count of 2,500/ml is a condition called ______.
    Leukopenia
  60. Blood _____ with fibrinogen removed is referred to as blood serum.
    Plasma
  61. A ____ white blood cell count calculates the percentages of the different types of leukocytes; a change in percentage may indicate an infection or disease.
    Differential
  62. _____ (swelling) is one sign of inflammation; due to increased plasma leakage at the site of infection.
    Edema
  63. _____ are granulocytes that make up 2-4% of the leukocyte population; percentage increased in the presence of parasitic worms and during allergic reactions.
    Eosinophils
  64. During inflammation, excess plasma leaks out of the local capillary beds and stimulates stretch receptors, resulting in _____.
    Itching
  65. A primary lymphoid tissue called the _____ gland is located in the upper thoracic cavity until about age 21.
    Thymus
  66. _____ is a defense system consisting of serum proteins that helps by promoting phagocytosis, initiating inflammation and causing cytolysis of foreign cells.
    Complement
  67. One innate immune response is ____; forceful outward movement of air from the nasal passageways.
    Sneezing
  68. ____ is the main protein of epidermis that makes it a tough, waterproof layer.
    Keratin
  69. _____ immunity is amines at one particular microbe, takes time to develop after exposure, and involves trained armies of cells called lymphocytes and antibody molecules.
    Acquired
  70. GALT stands for gut- _____ lymphoid tissue.
    Associated
  71. Sebaceous glands of the skin release _____ (a fatty secretion) that maintains a fairly low pH(4-6) on the skin surface.
    Sebum
  72. ____ _____ cells kill any antibody-coated cell by releasing granules of perforin and granzyme onto the cell; perforin enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes that cause apoptosis of the cell.
    Natural Killer
  73. In 1882, Elie ____ observed and named phagocytosis and proposed the idea that it occurs in our bodies to destroy germs!
    Metchnikoff
  74. _____ refers to phagocyte migration to the site of infection by detecting chemical signals.
    Chemotaxis
  75. B lymphocytes mature in the ____ _____ ____ and in GALT.
    Red Bone Marrow
  76. ____ are white blood cells.
    Leukocytes
  77. Natural killer cells release granules of perforin and ____ onto their target cell; perforin enables ____ to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes that cause apoptosis of the cell.
    Granzyme
  78. The ____ is a big cell in the red bone marrow that fragments repeatedly to form thrombocytes (platelets).
    Megakaryocyte
  79. ____ cells in loose areolar connective tissue are functionally similar to basophils in the blood; degranulation initiates inflammation.
    Mast
  80. It is not a good idea to take ____ during a viral illness because it inhibits interferon production.
    Asprin
  81. Natural killer cells release granules of ______ and granzyme onto their target cell; _______ enables granzyme to enter the cell where it activates caspase enzymes that cause apoptosis of the cell.
    Perforin
  82. ____ are disease causing organisms that have special properties enabling them to invade the body successfully.
    Pathogens
  83. A total white blood cell count of 18,000/ml is a condition called _____.
    Leukocytosis
  84. GALT tissue in birds is called the Bursa of Fabricius; in humans, it is called _____ _____.
    Pryer's Patchs
  85. ____ are granulocytes that make up 60-70% of the leukocyte population' great mobility and phagocyte activity; also called PMNs because of the varied shape of their nucleus.
    Neutrophils
  86. Activation of caspase enzymes results in ______; sometimes it is genetically triggered and results in 'programmed cell death.'
    Apoptosis
  87. When circulating monocytes leave the blood and enter tissues, they become ______.
    Macrophages
  88. Fixed macrophages are located in lymphoid tissues where they clean and filter wastes; examples include histiocytes in connective tissues. Kuppffer cells in liver tissue, and _____ in nerve tissue.
    Microglia
  89. ____ are circulating leukocytes that become macrophages when they leave the blood and enter the connective tissues.
    Monocytes
  90. _____ constriction of surface vessels occurs during development of fever, but ____ dilation occurs after the crisis to help bring the temperature back down to normal.
    Vaso
  91. B lymphocytes were originally discovered in gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue in birds called the ____ ___ ____; similar to our peer's patches.
    Bursa of Fabraicius
  92. Neutrophils and macrophages respond toward chemical signals of garaged tissues; this is called _____ chemotaxis.
    Positive
  93. ____ is an antibacterial enzyme found in saliva, mucus, and tears.
    Lysozyme
  94. ____ are the most numerous blood cells, averaging 4-6 million/ml of blood.
    Erythrocytes
  95. Complement is a defense system consisting of serum proteins that helps by promoting phagocytosis initiating inflammation and causing _____ of foreign cells.
    Cytolysis
  96. We have two important ____ responses to tissue injury or infection; Inflammation is localized while fever is systemic.
    Physiological
  97. Opsonization is a result of complement-fixation where fragments of complement proteins bind to a bacterial _____ to promote phagocytosis; actually means to "prepare for dinner."
    Capsule
  98. Fixed macrophages are located in lymphoid tissues where they clean and filter wastes; examples include histiocytes in connective tissues, _____ cells in liver tissue, and microglia in nerve tissue.
    Kupffer
  99. ____ is a process of engulfing an invading microbe that includes adsorption, ingestion, digestion and egestion.
    Phagocytosis
  100. ____ occurs when infection results in a change of health.
    Disease
  101. Acquired immunity is also referred to as ____ because it is directed at one particular invader.
    Specific
  102. The release of histamine and other chemicals from mast cells or basophils is called ______.
    Degranulation
  103. Mast cells and basophils release granules of histamine, _____ and prostaglandins.
    Leukotrienes
  104. Innate immunity (aka ____ immunity) is inborn and works against many foreign invaders; it involves physical barriers, physiological responses such as fever and inflammation, and phagocytes.
    Nonspecific
  105. ____ is a sign of inflammation caused by increased pressure on nerve endings due to edema.
    Pain
  106. One innate immune response is _____; a forceful upward and outward movement of air from the lower respiratory tract.
    Coughing
  107. ____ is the study of disease, including the cause, the manner in which it develops, and its effects on the body.
    Pathology
  108. ____ is a systemic physiological response to microbe invasion; an increase in body temperature helps to denature proteins of bacteria and viruses.
    Fever
  109. _____ macrophages are located in lymphoid tissues where they clean and filter wastes; examples include histiocytes in connective tissues. Kupffer cells in liver tissue, and microglia in nerve tissue.
    Fixed
  110. Lymphoid tissues in the oropharynx include tonsils and ____.
    Adenoids
  111. Increased numbers of eosinophils indicated allergies or parasitic ____ infection.
    Worm
  112. A narrow ____ joins each lobe of a neutrophil's nucleus to the next lobe.
    Isthmus

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