Test Two Text 1

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Test Two Text 1
2014-10-26 21:08:48
Test Two
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  1. a.       All organisms are composed of __surrounded by a __, use __for __, and __
    b.      __, or __, is the study of the __
    c.       Domains: __, __, and __
    • cells 
    • plasma membrane
    • ATP 
    • energy
    • store the genetic info in DNA

    • Systematics
    • phylogeny
    • evolutionary history of organisms

    Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea
  2. a.       Naming is done by giving a __
    b.      The taxonomic hierarchy is: __
    c.       A prokaryotic species is defined simply as a __
                                                                  i.      In some cases, pure cultures of the same species are __; and so, they are called __
    genus and species name

    kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species

    population of cells with similar caracteristics

    not identical

  3. What is metabolism?                                                             

    can be divided into two classes of chemical reactions: __                                                              

    enzyme-regulated chemical reactions that release energy: __
    1.       catabolic reactions are __ and are __
    sum of all the chemical reactions within a living organism; energy-balancing act

    those that release energy and those that require energy

    catabolism, the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones (catabolic/ degradative reactions)

    hydrolytic reactions

  4.                                                               i.      enzyme-regulated energy-requiring reactions: __
                                                                ii.      catabolic provides __ and __ needed to __
    1.       __stores energy derived from __ and releases it later to __ and __
    a.       ATPà __
    • anabolism, the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones (anabolic, or biosynthetic); dehydration synthesis and endergonic
    • building blocks and furnishes energy
    • drive anabolic reactions
    • ATP 
    • catabolic reactions
    • drive anabolic reactions
    • perform other cellular work
    • ADP + Pi­
  5.                                                               i.      Anabolic reactions are coupled to __, and catabolic reactions are coupled to __ 
    1.       Only part of energy released in catabolism is used for __because some is __
    • ATP breakdown
    • ATP synthesis
    • work 
    • lost as heat
  6. a.       Metabolic pathways: __
    b.      Enzymes
                                                                  i.      Collision theory: __
    1.       Dependent on __, __ and __
    2.       The reaction rate is the __
    sequence of chemical reactions; determined by enzymes

    explains how chemical reactions occur and how certain factors affect the rates of those reactions; all atoms, ions and molecules, must collide. This way, they can release energy to break and form bonds

    velocity, activation energy, orientation

    frequency of collision
  7.                                                               i.      Specificity of enzymes is made by their structures; and their ability to catalyze reactions and convert substrate to product is their __
                                                                ii.      Oxidoreductases: __
                                                              iii.      Dehydrogenases: __
                                                               iv.      Oxidases: __
    turnover number

    involved with oxidation-reduction reactions

    those that remove hydrogen from a substrate

    those that add O2
  8.                                                               i.      Apoenzyme: __
                                                                ii.      Cofactor: __
                                                              iii.      Holoenzyme: __
    • protein portion of enzyme
    • nonprotein component; if organic, it’s a coenzyme
    • apoenzyme + cofactor
  9.                                                               i.      Two important coenzymes
    1.       __ and __
    a.       Both contain __ and both function as __
                                                                                                                                          i.      NAD+: __
                                                                                                                                        ii.      NADP+: __
    2.       __ is also an electron carrier 
    NAD+ and NADP+

    derivatives of the B vitamin niacin

    electron carriers

    involved in catabolic (energy-yielding) reactions

    involved in anabolic reactions

  10.                                                               i.      Enzymes are subject to various __, such as in __ and __. This is affected by:
    1.       __6__
    • cellular controls
    • enzyme synthesis and enzyme activity

    Temperature, pH, substrate concentration, inhibitors, feedback inhibition/ end-product inhibition
  11.                                                               i.      __: unique type of RNA that functions as catalysts, has active sites that bind to substrates, and are not used up in a chemical reaction
  12. a.       Energy Production
                                                                  i.      Nutrient molecules have energy associated with the electrons that __. This energy is stored in __and can be released quickly and easily
                                                                ii.      Oxidation is __, which __; and reduction is the gain of electrons, which uses energy
    1.       __ and __ are removed at the same time, which is equal to removing a __
    a.       Loss of electrons: __
    • form bonds between their atoms
    • ATP bonds 
    • removal of electrons
    • produces energy
    • Electrons and protons
    • hydrogen ion
    • dehydrogenation
  13.                                                               i.      Cells take __, some of which serve as __, and degrade them from highly reduced compounds (with many __) to highly __
                                                                ii.      Much of the energy released during __ is __ by the __
    1.       __--> ATP (adding phosphate= __)
    • nutrients
    • energy sources
    • hydrogen atoms
    • oxidized compounds

    • oxidation-reduction reactions
    • trapped within the cell
    • formation of ATP
    • ADP+ energy+ phosphateà
    • phosphorylation
  14.                                                               i.      Types of phosphorylation
    1.       Substrate-level phosphorylation: __
    2.       Oxidative phosphorylation: __
    direct transfer of Pi from a phosphorylated compound to ADP

    electrons are transferred from organic compounds to one group of electron carriers. Then, the electrons are passed through a series of different electron carriers to molecules of oxygen (O2) or other oxidized inorganic and organic molecules
  15. a.       In prokaryotes, it’s in the plasma membrane on the __
                                                                                                                                          i.      This involves the __, which __ and is used to __through __
                                                                ii.      A sequence of enzymatically catalyzed chemical reactions occurring in a cell is called a __
    electron transport chain

    transfer of electrons from one electron carrier to the next

    releases energy and is used to generate ATP 


    metabolic pathway
  16. 1.       Example of a pathway: 
    a.       A is converted to B with a reduction of NAD+ to NADH. B is converted to C, which gets converted to D, releasing energy as it transforms and producing ATP from ADP and Pi.  D is converted to E with O2 as the reactant and CO2 and H2O as the by-products. 
  17. a.       Carbohydrate Catabolism: __; __is the most common source
                                                                  i.      This involves __ and __, which both have __, but follow different subsequent pathways
    • the breakdown of carbohydrate molecuels to produce energy
    • glucose

    • cellular respiration and fermentation
    • glycolysis
  18. Respiration has three parts: 

    __, __, and __

    Krebs Cycle

  19. Glycolysis
    oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid with the production of some ATP and energy-containing NADH
  20. Krebs Cycle
    1.       oxidation of acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide, with the production of some ATP, energy-containing NADH, and another electron carrier, FADH2
  21. ETC
    1.       NADH and FADH2 are oxidized, contributing the electrons they have carried from the substrates to a “cascade” of oxidation-reducation reactions involving a series of additional electron carriers. Energy from these reactions is used to generate a considerable amount of ATP. In respiration, most of the ATP is generated in the third step. 
  22.                                                               i.      Essentially, the process is __
    electron flow from energy-rich glucose to energy poor CO2 and H2O
  23. Fermentation
    • 1.       Glycolysis
    • 2.       Pyruvic acid is converted into different products, including alcohol or lactic acid
    • 3.       No Krebs cycle or ETC
    • 4.       ATP yield is lower
  24.                                                               i.      Glycolysis: __; aka: __
    1.       Glucose is split into __, which are __and undergo __ to produce __
    • oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid
    • Embden-Meyerhof pathway
    • two three carbon sugars
    • oxidized 
    • atom rearrangement
    • pyruvic acid
  25. Alternatives to glycolysis
    pentose phosphate pathway

    Entner Doudoroff Pathway
  26. Pentose phosphate pathway
    • a.       operates simultaneously with glycolysis and provides a means for breaking down five-carbon sugars and glucose
    •                                                                                                                                        i.      It produces important intermediate pentoses used in the synthesis of nucleic acids, glucose from carbon dioxide in photosynthesis, and certain amino acids
    •                                                                                                                                      ii.      Produces NADPH and yields one ATP for each molecule of glucose oxidized
  27. a.       Enter-Doudoroff Pathway
    •                                                                                                                                        i.      Produces two NADPH and one ATP; can metabolize glucose without glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway
    •                                                                                                                                      ii.      Usually in gram-negative bacteria
  28.                                                                i.      __: ATP-generating process in which molecules are oxidized and the final electorn acceptor is (almost always) an inorganic molecule; especially important is the ETC 

           Two types of respiration: __ and __
    Cellular Respiration

    aerobic (final electron acceptor is O2) and anaerobic (O2 is not the final electron acceptor)
  29. 1.       Aerobic
    a.       The Krebs Cycle: __
                                                                                                                                           i.      Pyruvate must get converted to __ for this cycle. It is done by __ and an attachment of __
                                                                                                                                         ii.      Since there are two pyruvate, two molecules of __are lost
    series of biochemical rections in which the large amount of potential chemical energy stored in acetyl CoA is released step by step

    acetyl coA

    decarboxylation (loss of CO2)

    coenzyme A (CoA)

  30.    i.      For every two molecules of acetyl CoA, __ are liberated, __ are produced by __, and __ are generated by __
    • four molecules of CO2 are liberated
    • six NADH and two FADH2
    • oxidation-reduction reactions
    • two ATP 
    • substrate-level phosphorylation
  31. a.       ETC: __
                                                                                                                                           i.      Three classes of carrier molecules in ETCs
    1.       __, which have __ and can perform __
    2.       __: contain __groups
    3.       __(Coenzyme Q)
                                                                                                                                         ii.      Goal: __
    sequence of carrier moleules that are capable of oxidation and reduction

    • Flavoproteins
    • Flavin 
    • redox reactions

    • Cytochromes
    • heme 


    release energy as electrons are transferred from higher-energy compounds to lower-energy compounds
  32.                                                                                                                                        i.      Steps of the ETC:
    • 1.       Transfer of electrons from NADH to FMN, oxidizing NADH to NAD+ and FMN is reduced to FMNH2
    • 2.       FMNH2 transfers H+, becoming oxidized and passing electrons to Q
    • 3.       Q transfers the electrons to the cytochomomes, which pass them to O2
  33.  i.      The ETC produces __, the movement of ions along a membrane, causing __ and creating a __, allowing __to be generated
    b.      Summary of Aerobic Respiration
                                                                                                                                           i.      __ molecules of ATP are produced from the __ + the two from __ and __= __ ATP in prokaryotes
    • chemiosmosis
    • protons to be pumped out
    • voltage across the membrane
    • ATP 
    • 34
    • ETC (3 from NADH and 2 from FADH2)
    • glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
    • 38
  34. 1.       Anaerobic
    a.       The final electron acceptor is an _
                                                                                                                                           i.      NO3-à __
                                                                                                                                         ii.      SO42-à __
                                                                                                                                        iii.      CO32-à __
                                                                                                                                       iv.      AtP yield?
    • inorganic substance other than oxygen
    • NO2-, N2O, or N2
    • H2S
    • CH4
    • Low ATP yield