2nd tst.txt

Card Set Information

2nd tst.txt
2010-08-02 09:45:34

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  1. Calcium Chloride
    • Electrolyte
    • Des: increases myocardial contractile force and increases ventricular automaticity.
    • Ind: Hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypermagnesemia, ad calcium channel blocker toxicity
    • CI: Ventricular fibrillation, hypercalcemia, and possible digitalis toxicity
    • PC: may precipitate toxicity in pts taking digoxin, ensure the IV line is in a large vein and is flushed before and after using calcium
    • Dose: 2 to 4mg/kg IV (10% solution)/ 10min as needed
  2. Methylprednisolone
    • (Solu-Medrol) Corticosteroid, Antiinflammatory
    • Des: Effective as an antiinflammatory and used in the management of allergic reactions and in some cases shock. Can sometimes be used in the treatment of spinal cord injury.
    • Ind: Spinal cord injury, asthma, severe anaphylaxsis, COPD
    • PC: Only use a single dose prehospitally
    • Dose: 125 to 250mg IV/IM (Asthma/ COPD/ Anaphylaxis); 30 mg/kg IV over 15 min, after 45 min an indusion of 5.4 mg/kg/hr (Spinal Cord Injury)
  3. Magnesium Sulfate
    • (Magnesium) Electrolyte
    • Des: Acts as a calcium channel blocker, acting as a CNS depressant and anticonvulsant. Depresses the function of smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscles.
    • Ind: Refractory ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia (especially torsade de pointes), AMI, eclamptic seizures
    • CI: Heart block, myocardial damage, shock, persistent hypertension, and hypocalcemia
    • PC: Other CNS depressants or neuromuscular blocking agents
    • Dose: 1 to 2g IV over 2 min (VFib or VTach); 1 to 2g IV over 5 to 30 min (AMI); 2 to 4g IV/IM (eclampsia)
  4. Phenytoin
    • (Dilantin) Anticonvulsant
    • Des: Reduces the spread of electrical discharges in the motor cortex and inhibits seizures. Also has antidysrythmic properties that counteract the effects of digitalis.
    • Ind: Seizures, status epilepticus, cardiac dysrythmias secondary to digitalis.
    • CI: Sinus bradycardia, heart block, Adams-Stokes syndrome
    • Dose: 10 to 15mg/kg slow IV (Seizures); 100mg slow IV (over 5 min) to a maximum of 1000mg (Dysrythmias)
  5. Sodium Bicarbonate
    • (NaHCO3) Alkalizing Agent
    • Des: Provides vascular bicarbonate to assist the buffer system in reducing the effects of metabolic acidosis and in the treatment of some overdoses
    • Ind: Tricyclic antidepressant and barbituate overdose, refractory acidosis, or hyperkalemia
    • PC: May precipitate calcium chloride
    • Dose: 1mEq/kg IV, then 0.5 mEq/kg/10 min
  6. Thiamine
    • Vitamin
    • Des: Vitamin B1, which is required to covert glucose into energy, it is not manufactured in the body and must be constantly provided from diet
    • Ind: Coma of unknown origin, chronic alcoholism with associated coma, and delirium tremens
    • Dose: 50 to 100mg IV/IM
  7. Diphenhydramine
    • (Benadryl) Antihistamine
    • Des: blocks histamine release, thereby reducing bronchoconstriction, vasodilation, and edema
    • Ind: Anaphylaxis, allergic reactions, and dystonic reactions
    • CI: Asthma and other lower respiratory diseases
    • Dose: 25 to 50mg IV/IM
  8. Lorazepam
    • (Ativan) Sedative
    • Des: the most potent benzodiazepine available. It has strong antianxiety, sedative, hypnotic, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties, and a relatively short half-life
    • Ind: Sedation for cardioversion and status epilepticus
    • PC: Narrow-angle glaucoma, depression or psychosis, coma, shock, acute alcohol intoxication, renal or hepatic impairment, organic brain syndrome, myasthenia gravis, GI disorders, elderly, debilitated, limited pulmonary reserve
    • Dose: 2 to 4mg IM, 0.5 to 2 mg IV (sedation); 2mg slow IV/PR (2 mg/min) (status epilepticus)
  9. Metoclopramide
    • (Reglan) Antiemitic
    • Des: a dopamine antagonist similar to procainamide but with few antidysrhythmic or anesthetic properties. Its antiemetic properties stem from rapid gastric emptying and desensitization of the vomiting reflex
    • Ind: Nausea and vomiting
    • CI: allergy to sulfite agents, seizure disorders, pheochromocytoma, mechanical GI obstruction or perforation, and breast cancer
    • PC: CHF, hypokalemia, renal impairment, GI hemorrhage, intermittent porphyria
    • Dose: 10 to 20mg IM; 10mg slow IV (over 1 to 2 min)
  10. Zofran
    • Antiemetic
    • Des: selective blocking agent of the serotonin receptor type
    • Ind: Nausea and intractible vomiting
    • PC: may mask a progressive ileus and/or gastric distension
    • Dose: single 24mg tablet ODT; 4mg IV undiluted over at least 30 seconds, preferably
  11. Chlordiazepoxide
    • (Librium) Sedative/ Hyponotic
    • Des: a benzodiazepine derivative that produces mild sedation and anticonvulsant, skeletal muscle relaxant, and prolonged hypnotic effects
    • Ind: Severe anxiety and tension, acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms (DTs)
    • CI: pregnant and nursing mothers, children under 6
    • PC: Primary depressive disorders or psychoses, acute alcohol intoxication
    • Dose: 50 to 100mg IV/IM
  12. Pancuronium
    • (Pavulon) Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blocker
    • Des: causes paralysis without bronchospasm or hypotension
    • Ind: to facilitate endotracheal intubation
    • CI: Tachycardia
    • Dose: 0.04 to 0.1mg/kg IV
  13. Vercuronium
    • (Norcuron) Nondepolarizing Skeletal Muscle Relaxant
    • Ind: Facilitated endotracheal intubation
    • PC: Severe obesity, myasthenia gravis, or maliginant hypothermia
    • Dose: 0.08 to 0.1mg/kg IV
  14. Butorphanol
    • (Stadol) Narcotic Analgesic
    • Des: a centrally acting synthetic narcotic analgesic about 5 times more potent than morphine. A schedule IV narcotic
    • Ind: Moderate to severe pain
    • CI: Head injury, or undiagnosed abdominal pain
  15. Meperidine
    • (Demerol) Narcotic Analgesic
    • Des: a synthetic narcotic with sedative and analgesic properties comparable to morphine but without hemodynamic side effects
    • Ind: Moderate to sever pain
    • CI: Seizure disorders, undiagnosed abdominal injury or pain
    • PC: ICP, asthma or other respiratory conditions, SVTs, prostatic hypertrophy, utheral structure, glaucoma, elderly or debilitated, renal or hepatic impairment, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease
    • Dose: 25 to 50mg IV, 50 to 100mg IM
  16. Nalbuphrine
    • (Nubain) Narcotic Analgesic
    • Des: a synthetic narcotic analgesic equivalent to morphine, though its respiratory depression does not increase with higher doses
    • Ind: Moderate to severe pain
    • CI: Undiagnosed head or abdominal injury
  17. Aminophylline
    • (Aminophylline, Somophyllin) Methylxanthine Bronchodilator
    • Des: Prolongs bronchodilation and decreases mucus production and has mild CNS and cardiac simulating effects.
    • Ind: CHF; Bronchospasm and COPD refractory to sympathomimetics and other bronchodilators
    • CI: Uncontrolled cardiac dysrhythmias
  18. Chlorpromazine
    • (Thorazine) Tranquilizer, Antipsychotic
    • Des: Phenothiazine derivatice used to managae psychotic episodesby providing stong sedation and moderate extrapyramidal symptoms
    • Ind: Acute psychotic episode, intractable hiccups, nausea/vomiting
  19. Promethazine
    • (Phenergan) Antiemetic
    • Des: An anticholinergic agent that enhances the effects of analgesics and is a potent antiemetic
    • Ind: Nausea/vomiting, motion sickness, to enhance the effects of analgesics, and to induce sedation
    • Dose: 12.5 to 25mg IV/IM/PR
  20. Terbutaline
    • (Brethine, Bricanyl) Sympathetic Agonist
    • Des: Causes bronchodilation with less cardiac effect than epinephrine
    • Ind: Bronchial asthma and bronchospasm in COPD
  21. Heparin
    • Anticoagulant
    • Des: Rapid-onset anticoagulant, enhancing the effects of antithrombin III and blocking the conversion of prothombrin to thombrin and fribrogen to fibrin
    • Ind: to prevent thrombus formation in acute MI
  22. Norepinephine
    • (Levophed) Ampathomimetic Agent
    • Des: Causes vasodilation, cardiac stimulation, and increased blood pressure, myocardial oxygen demand, and coronary
    • Ind: refractory hypotension and neurogenic shock
    • CI: hypotension due to uncorrected hypovolemia
  23. Timpotic
    • Beta blocker
    • Des: Non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent
    • Ind: HTN, AMI, elevated ocular pressure
    • CI: Asthma, severe COPD, sinus bradycardia, 2nd or 3rd degree AV block, cardiogenic shock
    • PC: readily absorbed
    • Dose: Opthalmic, one drop per eye BID
  24. Alteplase Recombinant
    • (tPA, Activase) Thrombolytic
    • Des: Recombinant DNA- derived form of human tPA promotes thrombolysis by forming plasmin. Plasmin, in turn, degrades fibrin and fibrogen, and ultimately the clot
    • Ind: To thrombolyse in AMI, acute ischemic stroke, and pulmonary embolism
    • CI: active internal bleeding, suspected aortic dissection, traumatic CPR, recent hemmoragic stroke (6 months), intracranial or intraspinal surgery or tauma (2 months), pregnancy, uncontrolled hypertension.
    • PC: recent major surgery, cerebral vascular disease, recent GI or GU bleeding, recent trauma, hypertension, pt >75 years old, current oral anticoagulants, or hemmorhagic opthalmic conditions
    • Dose: 15mg IV, then 0.75mg/kg (up to 50mg) over 30 min, then 0.5mg/kg (up to 35mg) over 60 min (AMI and stroke)
    • 100mg IV infusion over 2 hours (pulmonary edema)
  25. Dexamethasone
    • (Decadron) Steroid
    • Des: a long-acting synthetic adrenocorticoid with intense antiinflammatory activity
    • Ind: Anaphylaxis, COPD, Asthma, and Spinal Cord Edema
    • CI: None in emergency setting
  26. Ketorolac
    • (Toradol) NSAID
    • Des: an injectable NSAID that exhibits analgesic, antiinflammatory, and antipyretic properties without sedative effects
    • Ind: Mild or moderate pain
  27. Mannitol
    • (Osmitrol) Osmotic diuretic
    • Des: an osmotic diuretic that draws water into the intravascular space through its hypertonic effects, then causes diuresis
    • Ind: cerebral edema
  28. Glucagon
    • (GlucaGen) Hormone, Antihypoclycemic
    • Des: a protein secreted by pancreatic cells that causes a breakdown of stored glycogen
    • Ind: Hypoglycemia without IV access and to reverse beta-blocker overdose
    • PC: Effective only if there are sufficient stores of glycogen in the
    • liver
    • Dose: 1mg IM/SQ repeat/5 to 20 min (Hypoglycemia)
    • 50 to 150mcg/kg IV over 1 min (Beta-blocker overdose)
  29. Oxytocin
    • (Pitocin) Hormone
    • Des: a naturally occurring hormone that causes the uterus to contract, thereby inducing labor, encouraging delivery of the placenta, and controlling postpartum hemorrhage
    • Ind: Severe postpartum hemorrhage
  30. Prochlorperazine
    • (Compazine) Antiemetic
    • Des: Has potent antiemetic properties and fewer sedative, hypotensive, and anticholinergic effects
    • Ind: Severe nausea and vomiting, or acute psychosis
    • CI: Coma or depression
  31. Racemic Epinephrine
    • Sympathomimetic Agonist
    • Des: a variation of epinephrine used only for inhalation to induce bronchodilation and to reduce laryngeal edema and mucus secretion
    • Ind: Croup
    • CI: Hypertension or epiglottitis