Test Two Text 2

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Author:
DesLee26
ID:
287168
Filename:
Test Two Text 2
Updated:
2014-10-26 21:38:31
Tags:
Garcia
Folders:
Microbio
Description:
Test Two
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  1.                                                                i.      Fermentation
    1) What is the method?      
    2.       It releases energy from __or other organic molecules, like __, etc; does not require __ nor does it require __; uses organic molecule as the __; and produces only __
    Glucose-->pyruvic acid--> converted to organic product with regeneration of NAD+ and NADP+

    • sugars 
    • amino acids

    • oxygen
    • the Krebs cycle or ETC

    final electron acceptor

    small amounts of ATP
  2. 1.       During fermentation, elecrons are transferred from __ to __, which are reduced to __
    2.       An essential function of the second state is to ensure a steady supply of __ and __
    • reduced coenzymes
    • pyruvic acid
    • end products
    • NAD+ and NADP+
  3. 1.       Lactic acid fermentation 
    • a.       Pyruvic acidà reduction to NADH to form lactic acid
    • b.      Small amount of energy produced
    • c.       Homolactic produce only lactic acid
    • d.      Heterolactic produce a lot more than lactic acid
  4. 1.       Alcohol fermentation
    • a.       Pyruvic acidà acetaldehyde and 2 CO2à acetaldehyde reduced to NADH to from ethanol
    • Low-energy yield 
  5.                                                                i.      Lipid and Protein Catabolism
    1.       Microbes produce extracellular enzymes called __that break fasts down into their __ and __
    2.       Krebs cycle functions in the __
    • lipases 
    • fatty acid and glycerol components
    • oxidation of glycerol and fatty acids
  6. 1.       Proteins are too large; and so, __ and __ need to break down proteins into their __, which can cross membrane
    a.       Before catabolism of amino acids, they must be converted by __, __, and __
    • proteases and peptidases
    • component amino acids
    • deamination, decarboxylation, and dehydrogenation
  7.                                                                i.      Phototrophs vs. Chemotrophs
    • 1.       Phototrophs use light as primary energy source
    • 2.       Chemotrophs use redox reactions of inorganic or organic compounds for energy
  8. a.       Autotroups use __; heterotrophs use __
    b.      Autotrophs: __
    c.       Heterotrophs: __
    • CO2
    • organic carbon
    • lithotrophs
    • organotrophs
  9.                                                                i.      Photoautotrophs
    1.       The hydrogen atoms of water are used to __, and __ is given off; because this __process produces __, it is __
    2.       Some cannot use __to reduce __ and cannot carry on __when __is present; their photosynthetic process doesn’t produce O2à __
    • reduce CO2
    • oxygen gas
    • photosynthetic 
    • O2,
    • oxygenic 

    • H2O 
    • CO2
    • photosynthesis 
    • oxygen 
    • anoxygenic
  10.                                                                i.      Photoheterotrophs
    1.       Use light as a source of energy but cannot __; rather, they use as sources of __
    • convert carbon dioxide to sugar
    • carbon organic compounds
  11.                                                                i.      Chemoautotrophs
    1.       Use electrons from __ as a source of energy, and they use __as their principle source of carbon; they __ ­in the __
    2.       The energy derived from the __ is stored in __, which is produced by __
    • reduced inorganic compounds
    • CO2 
    • fix CO2
    • Calvin-Benson Cycle
    • oxidation of these inorganic compounds
    • ATP
    • oxidative phosphorylation
  12.                                                                i.      Chemoheterotrophs
    1.       Use electrons from __ in organic compounds as their energy source
    2.       Classified according to source of organic molecules
    __ versus __
    • hydrogen atoms
    • Saprophytes versus parasites

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