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What are the divisions of the nervous system?
sensory and motor
How does the sensory division work?
- has receptors that send info back to the CNS
- somatic and visceral
How does the motor division work?
- transmits info from the CNS to the rest of the body with effectors
- somatic and autonomic
function of ganglia:
oversees initiation of motor activity
function of dienaphalon:
holds endocrine glands
- made up of dendrites and cell body
- exterior of brain
- interior of brain
- transmission center
- made up of axons
function of cerebellum:
- coordination of muscle movement
function of cerebrum:
initiation of motor activity
3 parts of the brainstem:
What houses cranial nerves?
dorsal root goes to the:
ventral root goes to the:
function of the neuron:
conduct neural impulses (sends signals)
function of the neuron cell body:
function of neuron dendrites:
- primary reception or input region
- convey message to cell body
function of neuron axon:
- generate and transmit nerve impulses away from the cell bodyconduction region of nervesneurotransmitters
function of neuron myelin sheath:
- speed up signals
- never on dendrites
function of neuron neurilema:
- outer membrane
- schwann cell cytoplasm
What is a synapse?
- junction where information is exchanged between neurons or between a neuron and a cell
- can be electrical or chemical
What is a presynaptic neuron?
where the signal is coming across
What is a postsynaptic neuron?
receives the signal
axon sends info to the cell body
sends info neuron to neuron
What is resting membrane potential?
- when the interior of the cell is negatively charged in relation to outside of the cell
- voltage-gated channels are closed
- Na+ concentrated outside the cell, K+concentrated inside cell
What occurs in depolarization?
- membrane potential is brought to threshold voltage
- voltage-gated channels open
- Na+ rushes inside
- increases chance of action potential
What occurs at the action potential?
- maximum depolarization is reached
- Na+ channels close, additional K+ channels open
What occurs in hyperpolarization?
additional K+ exits the cell until resting conditions are re-established
What are graded potentials?
- short, localized changes in membrane potential
- either depolarization or hyperpolarization
- generated by dendrites
What is action potential?
- primary way neurons communicate
- travels through axons
What occurs in electrical synapses?
ions are exchanged through gap junctions between cell membranes of adjacent neurons
What occurs in chemical synapses?
- action potential arrives at axon terminal
- voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open
- Ca2+ enters the cell and signals to vesicles
- vesicles move to the membrane and release neurotransmitters
- neurotransmitters diffuse across synaptic cleft and bind to receptors
What behavior is the sympathetic nervous system in charge of?
fight or flight
What behavior is the parasympathetic nervous system in charge of
rest or digest
role of multipolar neuron:
- central nervous system
- ex: muscle
role of bipolar neuron:
- vision or olfactory
- ex: retina
role of unipolar neuron:
- peripheral neuron
- ex: skin