Nervous System

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Author:
alyssau12
ID:
287172
Filename:
Nervous System
Updated:
2014-10-27 17:34:59
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ANSC
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farm animal anatomy test
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  1. What are the divisions of the nervous system?
    sensory and motor
  2. How does the sensory division work?
    • has receptors that send info back to the CNS
    • afferent
    • somatic and visceral
  3. How does the motor division work?
    • transmits info from the CNS to the rest of the body with effectors
    • efferent
    • somatic and autonomic
  4. function of ganglia:
    oversees initiation of motor activity
  5. function of dienaphalon:
    holds endocrine glands
  6. gray matter:
    • made up of dendrites and cell body
    • exterior of brain
  7. white matter:
    • interior of brain
    • transmission center
    • made up of axons
  8. function of cerebellum:
    • motor-memory
    • coordination of muscle movement
  9. function of cerebrum:
    initiation of motor activity
  10. 3 parts of the brainstem:
    • mid brain
    • pons
    • medulla
  11. What houses cranial nerves?
    medulla
  12. dorsal root goes to the:
    sensory neuron
  13. ventral root goes to the:
    motor neuron
  14. function of the neuron:
    conduct neural impulses (sends signals)
  15. function of the neuron cell body:
    biosynthetic center
  16. function of neuron dendrites:
    • primary reception or input region
    • convey message to cell body
  17. function of neuron axon:
    • generate and transmit nerve impulses away from the cell body
    • conduction region of nerves
    • neurotransmitters
  18. function of neuron myelin sheath:
    • protection
    • speed up signals
    • never on dendrites
  19. function of neuron neurilema:
    • outer membrane
    • schwann cell cytoplasm
  20. What is a synapse?
    • junction where information is exchanged between neurons or between a neuron and a cell
    • can be electrical or chemical
  21. What is a presynaptic neuron?
    where the signal is coming across
  22. What is a postsynaptic neuron?
    receives the signal
  23. axosomatic neurons:
    axon sends info to the cell body
  24. axodendritic neurons:
    sends info neuron to neuron
  25. What is resting membrane potential?
    • when the interior of the cell is negatively charged in relation to outside of the cell
    • voltage-gated channels are closed
    • Na+ concentrated outside the cell, K+concentrated inside cell
  26. What occurs in depolarization?
    • membrane potential is brought to threshold voltage
    • voltage-gated channels open
    • Na+ rushes inside
    • increases chance of action potential
  27. What occurs at the action potential?
    • maximum depolarization is reached
    • Nachannels close, additional K+ channels open
  28. What occurs in hyperpolarization?
    additional Kexits the cell until resting conditions are re-established
  29. What are graded potentials?
    • short, localized changes in membrane potential
    • either depolarization or hyperpolarization
    • generated by dendrites
  30. What is action potential?
    • primary way neurons communicate
    • travels through axons
  31. What occurs in electrical synapses?
    ions are exchanged through gap junctions between cell membranes of adjacent neurons
  32. What occurs in chemical synapses?
    • action potential arrives at axon terminal
    • voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open
    • Ca2+ enters the cell and signals to vesicles
    • vesicles move to the membrane and release neurotransmitters
    • neurotransmitters diffuse across synaptic cleft and bind to receptors
  33. What behavior is the sympathetic nervous system in charge of?
    fight or flight
  34. What behavior is the parasympathetic nervous system in charge of
    rest or digest
  35. role of multipolar neuron:
    • body
    • central nervous system
    • ex: muscle
  36. role of bipolar neuron:
    • vision or olfactory
    • ex: retina
  37. role of unipolar neuron:
    • sensory
    • peripheral neuron
    • ex: skin

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