History Test 2

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History Test 2
2014-10-29 12:32:23

Test 2
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  1. Zhenghe
    • eunuch admiral in China-1405
    • sent a fleet of Chinese trade ships through the strait of Malacca an into the Indian Ocean
  2. Popul Vuh
    • The scared book of the Maya
    • Account of Mayan history and religious beliefs
    • Written down in Quiché, the spoken language of the Maya and later trans. to Spanish
  3. Hernán Cortés
    • Came to Cuba first
    • Learned the language of the people and told them he was the god they were waiting for
    • Verzcruz: gets to capital and Moctezuma doesn't know what to do.
    • Spanish take over Aztec society
  4. Moche
    • 1st millennium AD
    • Occupied 2500 squares miles along the Moche River
    • Pyramid of the Sun: paintings and pottery depicted with warriors, prisoners, and sacrifices.
    • 8th century they start to collapse
  5. Dunhuang
    • They were caves that were on the border of the Chinese empire
    • Buddhist merchants who stopped, while waiting for permission to enter China, wished to give thanks for surviving the rigors of the Silk Road
  6. Islam:
    • Started by Muhammad the prophet
    • Consists of 5 Pillars of faith
    • The Quran
    • Secondary Principles
  7. Caliph
    • Literally means 'successor'
    • Temporal leader of the Islamic community and considered to be a religious leader
  8. Vizier
    • During the Abbasid rule; this was the prime minister
    • Head of the diwan or council that assisted the caliph
  9. Hadith
    Followers of Muhammad
  10. Muhammad
    • Born in 570 AD
    • Grew up in Mecca, marries a rich widow
    • They have one daughter together-Fatima
    • 610 AD: Goes into desert to meditate; visited by the Angel Gabriel
    • 622 AD: Forced to leave Mecca and flees to Medina; they accept his beliefs there
    • Return and take of Mecca; Muhammad dies in 632 Ad
  11. 5 Pillars
    • La-ila-il-l'Allah: There is no God but God; statement of faith
    • Salat: requirement to pray 5 times a day facing Mecca; submission to God
    • Sawm (Sawat): the requirement to fast during the 9th month of Islamic year (Ramadan) abstain from food/drink/sexual rel. during light
    • Zakah: acceptance of obligation to assist the poor by monies/good works; regardless of religion
    • Hajj (pilgrimage): to the holy paces at least once during one's lifetime: Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
  12. Secondary Principles
    • Allah's will is contained in the Holy Qur'an which he himself dictated you Muhammad, his prophet
    • There is a last judgment at which time all soul will be consigned to heaven or hell
    • Allah decrees all men are brothers in His eyes
    • Adhere to the strict set of dietary rules as specified in the Qur'an
    • At all times and in all places acknowledge the glory and righteousness of the one true God, Allah
  13. Berbers
    • Pastoral people that living along the Med. coast and in mountains of the interior
    • Moved goods and slaves for trade within the Middle East
    • Particularly for the Arab poeple
  14. Mansa Musa
    • 1312-1337 AD
    • Expanded Mali up to the Mediterranean
    • King of Mali who converted to Islam and encouraged his people to convert as well
    • Made the Hajj (pilgrimage) 1324AD
  15. Epic of Son-Jara
    • A west African bard/story
    • Ordeals of a male protagonist who overcomes superhuman obstacles while fulfilling his heroic destiny
  16. Fa Xian
    • Buddhist missionary monk
    • Stopped along his way on the silk road stopped in Bamiyan
    • Bamiyan: center of major Buddhist studies- "the law of Buddha"
  17. Mahmud of Ghazni
    • 962 AD
    • Moves out of Persia and into India
    • Sets up a court/state near the Indus River Valley all the way to the Indian Ocean
  18. purdah
    • Originated with the Muslim people but was adopted by the Hindu religion in India
    • Literally means "behind the curtain"
    • Believed it was a practical way of protecting a woman's virtue
  19. Sati
    • The practice of throwing a widow onto the pyre of her dead husband in the Indian culture
    • Still sometimes practiced today
  20. Taika Reforms
    • "Great change"
    • Began in the mid 7th century
    • The Grand Council of State was est.- prsiding over a cabinet of 8 ministries (centralized Japanese State)
  21. Shen Hui
    • One of the leading exponents of Chan (Zen) Buddhism
    • Dates back to the 8th century- attempts to describe the means by which an indiv. may hope to seek enlightenment
  22. Pure Land Sect
    • Requires devotion toward others in your family, community, and neighbors
    • Appealed to ordinary Chinese because it lacked time and inclination for strict monastic study
  23. Neo-Confucianism
    • The investigation of intangible things- real and unreal
    • Zhu Xi: sep. of the world into material and transcendent
    • Supreme Ultimate: Tai Ji- governed by the law of yin and yang and the five elements
    • Five Elements: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water
  24. Li Bo
    • Li Bo (Li Bai): a free spirit Daoist- writings often centered on nature 
    • Moods shifted from revelry to melancholy
  25. Du Fu
    • Do Fu: a sober Confucian
    • Poems dealt with historial issues or ethical themes
    • Works reflect a concern for social injustice
  26. Genghis Khan
    • Came from the north of China
    • Real name is Temunjin: 1162-1227 AD
    • Genghis Khan: literally "Universal Ruler"
    • The Mongols chose him as their leaders along all the clans
  27. Umma
    • Following the Hegira Muhammad was able to convert the nomadic Bedouin tribes up north
    • He formed the first Muslim community
    • With his community they marched on Mecca in 630 AD
  28. Umayyads
    • After the death/assassination of both Umar, Uthman, and Ali the governor of Syria took the position of caliphate
    • Mu'awiya: made the caliphate hereditary in his own family
  29. Sufism
    • Unorthodox form of Islam that flourished in the Muslim world
    • Preached the imp. of a highly personal rel. with Allah and indiv.
    • Major role in efforts to spead Islam to India Central Asia
  30. Coptic
    Those in Egypt who were the original Christians dating back to when Christianity first came to Egypt
  31. Swahili
    • Official language of Africa but is also a culture
    • During the 1200s the culture believed that the Indian ocean was enclosed and Africa could not be circumnavigated
  32. Angkor Wat
    • A Hindu temple first then a Buddhist temple it was built in Cambodia
    • Built by the Khmer King Suryavarman has been for century a mix between Hindu and Buddhist styles
  33. The Silk Road
    • Not only for the trans. of goods but ideas and technology as well
    • First Indian monks traveled over the road
    • Route from China to Rome (passed through the northwest mountains of India)
  34. Theravada
    • "the teachings of the elders"
    • Buddhism was a life not a salvationist creed: strict adherence to personal behavior and quest for understanding as a means to release oneself from the wheel of life
  35. Tamerlane
    • Ruled in the 1330s AD
    • Mongol Khan: seized power in 1269 of Samarkand and then took control whole region east of the Caspian Sea
    • Died in 1405 after defeating the Ottoman Turks
  36. Xuan Zang
    • 7th century Chinese traveler
    • Visited India, recorded culture, and religion and had respect for the Hindu people
  37. Sanskrit
    The ancient language of the Arab people
  38. Samauri
    • Warrior class in Japan
    • Were much like the European knights: rode on horseback and adhered to a strict moral code (Bushido)
    • Lived a life of simplicity and had unquestioning loyalty to their lord