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releases melatonin; seasonal changes, breading ability in animals; sleep initiation from decreased light signals
Hypothalamus (what does it mediate)
mediates both autonomic and endocrine functions
Oxytocin and vasopressin sent to the the posterior pituitary, releasing hormones (factors) that tell the pituitary what to synthesize and release
What are the 3 neuroendocrine (hormone) glands
Pineal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland
What is unique about steroid hormones in terms of signaling?
Steroids are fatty so they can slip through the membrane and bind/activate receptor on the nucleus membrane or inside cell and then transported into the nucleus
Compare/contrast hormones vs. neurotransmitters (both)
require receptors (on cell membrane), can use second messenger systems, can activate intracellular enzymes
Compare/contrast hormones vs. neurotransmitters (only hormones)
require receptors and can bind on nucleus membrane
have receptors anywhere in the body, are transported in the blood
have more global effects (not as localized as neurotransmitters), and can change tissue anywhere in your body
How do hormones signal another cell?
Neuronal signal is transmitted to the next neuron, which, when the AP reached the terminal, releases hormones into the blood
the hormone then reaches a target cell with appropriate receptors
What exactly is a hormone?
has slow, gradual effects, and can change subtle features (do not turn behavior on or off)
hormones modify behaviors and behaviors can change hormone levels
hormone levels go through circadian (change throughout the day), and they can only affect cells that have the specific receptors