bio psych test 2 part 2

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  1. What are the 7 steps of neurodevelopment?
    Neurogenesis (generation of new neurons and happens in the basil ganglia), Migration (movement of cells), differentiation (to change from a immature phenotype to a male phenotype), Axon growth/pathfinding, synaptogenesis (creation of synapses, apotosis (programmed cell death), and remodeling (fine-tuning)
  2. What are stem cells?
    they are in the ventricle zone, and proliferate (multiply)
  3. Stages of stem cell development
    Totipotent (youngest cells, the ability to be moved anywhere in your body), pluripotent (many abilities to be moved), progenitors/precursors (close to adult), and adult
  4. What happens later to radial glia in humans, but
    not other species?
    Radial glia does not become astrocytes, they become neurons
  5. How do growth cones know where to go?
    Growth cones (also found on dendrites and have plasticity) see target-derived growth factors, ofwhich are heavily competitve

    CAMs direct a growth cone where to go
  6. What happens to cells that do not find a target?
    Neurons that do not make functional synapses are eliminated by apoptosis (programmed cell death, cell suicide
  7. What is the two-way communication required to
    keep a functional synapse?
    to maintain this synapse, the presynaptic neuron must release neurotransmitter and the target must release BDNF throughout life
  8. What are the 3 types of remodeling we talked
    Synaptic modeling (rearranging/prunning), Myelination, Dendritic branching/spine morphology (the most plastic type of remodeling, occur throughout life)
  9. What are the 3 types of remodeling we talked
    about? (synaptic remodeling)
    mediates signal refinement, occurs caudal to rostral (prefrontal cortex last)

    experience modulates synaptic activity, resulting in different/changing patterns of connectivity (plasticity)
  10. What are the 3 types of remodeling we talked
    about? (myelination)
    glia are also derived from the ventricular zone stem cells, and myelination is not complete until approximately 25 years old

    development (which is sensory before motor) progresses caudal to rosteral
  11. What are the 3 types of remodeling we talked
    about? (dendritic branching/spine morphology)
    in response to environmental signals, dendrites can branch extensively, or collapse
  12. What are target-derived growth factors
    BDNF (Brain derived neurotropic factors)
  13. Chemoaffinity
    Each cell has a chemical identity that directs it to synapse on the proper target cell during development
  14. Chemotaxis
    Finding your way based on a gradient of chemicals
Card Set
bio psych test 2 part 2
Biological psychology test 2 chapter 7
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