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Renewed Religious struggle
-shift from central to ____ Europe; Lutherans/Zwinglians to non-Lutheran Protestants
-equally dogmatic, aggressive, and irreconcilable church systems
1. first adopted by ____ eventually by politicians and leaders- politiques
-wars of religion were internal national conflicts and truly ____ wars
The French Wars of Religion
-persecution of French Protestants - Huguenots
1. appease ____
2. ____ to anti-Catholic rhetoric; Edict of Fontainebleau and Chateaubriand
-power shift from France to Spain because of death of Henry 2 and competition between the ____, Montmorency-Chatillons and Guises families for ____ dominance.
- Charles V
Appeal of Calvinism
-ambitious ____ and discontented townspeople joined Calvanist churches; secular and religious ____ mixed
Catherine De Medicis and the Guises
-Queen mother Medicis tried to ____ Protestant and Catholic factions
1. January Edict; massacre at Vassy ____ French wars of religion
-The peace of saint-germain-en-laye
1. acknowledged the power of Protestant nobility, granted Huguenots religious freedoms within their ____ and the right to fortify their cities.
2. Crown caught between fanatical ____ and Guise extremes
-the Saint Bartholomew's day ____ made the religious struggle in Europe an international struggle for survival
-Protestant Resistance Theory
1. Calvin condemned willful ____ and rebellion against constituted governments as un-Christian ____ one was a lawful part of a tyrannical government
2. John Knox- First blast of the trumpet against the terrible regiment of Women
3. Francois Hotman - Franco Gallia, Theodore Baza - on the right magistrates over their sunjects; plessis mornay - defense of liberty against Tyrants
the rise to power of Henry of Navarre
-Henry III steered a ____ ____ between the Catholic League and the Huguenots; sought alliances with people who put ____ survival above religious unity.
1. Peace of Beaulieu ____; Day of Barricades fails; alliance struck with Henry of Navarre
2. Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV and brings ____ to France
- middle course
The Edict of Nates
-Treaty of ____ ends hostilities between Spain and France
-Granted Huguenots freedom of ____, right of assembly, admission to public offices and universities, and permission to ____ towns.
- public worship