genetics test 2 ch.8 Chromosome structure and number

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doncheto
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genetics test 2 ch.8 Chromosome structure and number
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2014-11-10 16:16:25
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genetics chromosomes structure number
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  1. tellocentric
  2. acrocentric
  3. metocentric
  4. G-banding
    • Giemsa stain
    • Reflects how condensed the chromosome is.
    • Dark - heterochromatin
    • Light - euchromatin
  5. Deletions
    • usually bad (dep on size) lethal
    • *loss
  6. Duplication
    • - Tolerated better
    • - Through evolution can also be beneficial
    • - Gain
  7. Relocations
    • depends- If gene was moved away from its promoter can be bad.
  8. Inversions
    • -2 types
    • 1. Paracentric
    • 2. Pericentric
    • -inversion spans centromere
    • -Don't tend to have phenotypic consequences
    • (balanced rearrangement of genetic material)
    • -where/when there are issues:
    • 1. If break pt disrupts gene seq.
    • 2. If new location of gene places it under diff. (abnormal) expression regulation.
  9. Translocation
    • - There are many different types
    • Focus on one.
    • - Reciprocal (or "balanced") - minimal phenotypic consequence.

    • 2 common ways this happens
    • - Chromosomes break (non-homologous)
    • double stranded (ds) break-DNA repair enzymes recognize, attach pieces to wrong chromosomes. They don't recognize homologous so they don't reattach correctly.
    • - UV, irradiation (environment damage)
    • - by-products --O2 radicals
    • 2. Non-homologous chromosomes pair accidently @ cell division
    • - cross-over
    • PC= "pair-centers"
  10. PC
    • = "pair-centers"
    • help organize chromosomal pairs.
  11. Chromosome # variation
    • Dipliod vs. {tripliod, tetrapliod - polypliod}
    • "ploidy" changes

    • sturgeon - octapliod
    •               - 12-ploid
    • "polypliod"- normal for some organismal
    • ex. human liver - increase expression
  12. aneupliod
    • trisomic, tetrasomic
    • Abnormal number of individual chromosomes
  13. In humans (aneuploid)
    • XXY
    • XYY
    • XXX
    • X_
    • Much more tolerated in human sex chromosomes because dosage compensation and few genes in Y.
  14. Increase affects probability
    • Age of mother
    • - eggs are held at prophase I

    when there are errors- non-dusjunction
  15. disjunction
    • part of normal process.
    • mitotic non-disjunction = aneuploid areas on body.
    • meiotic non-disjunction = aneupliod organism
    • **** find definition pic**********
  16. causes of non-disjunction
    • random/spontaneous
    • -often involve interference w/ microtubule polymerization.
    • - more non-disjunction @ meiosis I
    •  in vitro (experimentally)
    •  - chemicals called mitotic inhibitors colchicine colcemid
    • ****Find a diagram on non-disjuction***

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