Organic Chemistry - Test 2

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Author:
littl3
ID:
287298
Filename:
Organic Chemistry - Test 2
Updated:
2014-10-28 00:53:30
Tags:
biologyhonors organic chemistry
Folders:
Biology Honors
Description:
Test Number 2
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  1. Inorganic compounds and the natural elements (of which ___________ are needed for life) are the ____________ from which living organisms ___________ the substances (ie, __________ compounds) they need done
    • 18
    • Raw Materials
    • build
    • organic
  2. Most important inorganic compounds and elements include following (4)
    • Sponch Elements
    • Trace Elements
    • Water
    • Carbon Dioxide
  3. What are Sponch Elements?
    The most common elements needed by living things.

    These are the basic building blocks
  4. What are Trace Elements?
    AKA minerals

    Only needed in small quantities

    Are of vital importance in regulation of body function ie metabolism
  5. What are examples of Trace Elements? (5)
    • Na (sodium)
    • Fe (iron)
    • Ca (calcium)
    • Mg (magnesium)
    • Zn (zinc)
  6. What is the most abundant inorganic compound?
    Water
  7. What are the several important uses of water?
    transport of nutrients and waste, aids in digestion and regulation of body temperature.
  8. What is the largest component of a cell?
    Cytoplasm
  9. Describe Cytoplasm
    Primarily water, has some things dissolved in it and other things suspended in it.  Is considered a colloidal suspension. 

    Because of it's many uses, water accounts for the majority of the mass of every living organism (65-95%)
  10. What is necessary for all life?
    Carbon Dioxide
  11. Describe Carbon Dioxide
    Supplies all the carbon found in compound made by living things.

    Humans cannot directly convert Carbon Dioxide, water and minerals into more complex molecules.
  12. How do green plants organize inorganic compounds and elements?
    using photosynthesis into complex organic compounds which heterotrophs consume directly as herbivores or indirectly as carnivores
  13. What plants act as a bridge between inorganic and organic compounds?
    Autotrophs
  14. What are two things required to be an organic compound?
    • Must be made by living things
    • Contain carbon to carbon bond
  15. What does monosaccharide literally mean?
    One sugar
  16. Why is cellulose important to plants?
    Cellulose along with Turgor pressure allows plants to remain upright.
  17. What do you call a long chain of protein monomers?
    polypeptide
  18. Define dehydration synthesis
    Its the breaking down of macro molecules, you have two stable monomers and you need to make them unstable in order to bond. So you take an OH group from one monomer, which is a carboxyl group, and you take an H or hydrogen group from the other monomer, causing the two monomers to become unstable and bond. The H and OH form a water molecule.
  19. When it comes down to it, what makes you you?
    The result of the proteins you produce
  20. Define Hydrolysis
    Its the chemical process by which all macromolecules are broken down
  21. What do you call the substance formed when 2 protein monomers combine??
    Dipeptide
  22. When a person wants to lose weight, what inorganic compound must be consumed if digestion is to occur?  (What two components are created and what happens to each of them?)
    Water must be consumed and the two products produced are an H or hydrogen group and an OH or carboxyl group, then an H will bond to one unstable monomer and and OH will bond to the other unstable monomer stabilizing them and reestablishing the original two stable monomers.
  23. What 3 major functions do lipids perform for most living organisms?
    1)Make up the cell structure (form bilayer foundation of cell membrane and organelles) --Making them one of the most widespread structural materials in the body

    • 2)Are concentrated energy sources serve as a reserve energy supply
    • -Contain twice as much energy as same mass of carbohydrates or proteins
    • -Possess many more rich carbon-hydrogen bonds

    3) Provide insulation( layers of fat under the skin keeps you warm) Cushioning and protection for parts of the body (most organs contain a layer of fat around them)
  24. Give the molecular formula for all disaccharides? Why are they considered isomers?
    • C12H22O11
    • They have the same molecular formulas but different structural formulas.
  25. What is biosynthesis?
    The building of organic molecules by living organisms

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