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  1. Impetigo

    - caused by?
    - how to get it? 
    - what it does?
    almost every Staph and strep species causes it 

    kids come in contact with contaminated material with high bacterial count

    gets on skin--> gets in via follicles and glands--> infection between dermal and epidermal layers--> crusting
  2. Impetigo

    - effect?
    - how to maintain it?
    - progression?
    - risk?
    reddening, heat, swelling

    they are infectious; keep person clean and bandaged

    as disease progresses, the lesions start weeping (prokaryotes, water, bacteria) and crusts in areas around the crusting and in since bacteria are there

    if you have a large inflammatry response near the eye, immunse system can damage eye because of hydrolases, etc.
  3. Gas Ganrene
    - obtained from? 
    - what does it involve?
    obtained by a deep inoculation or intramuscular injection

    it involves spore germination; bacteria get in and set up zone of anaerobic conditions (microaerophilic)

    bcteria flourish and the immune system does not
  4. Gas Gangrene
    - Common in who?

    - what happens if spores get in circulatory system?
    people with prosthetics (not common)

    motorcycle accidents and deep would inoculations, such as patients receiving IV drug medication

    It becomes syteminc--> bacteria don't find microaerophilic spots in the circulatory system (you don't see gas gangrene)
  5. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    - caused by? 
    - how it is obtained? 
    - what does the bacteria like?
    Rickettsia Ricketsii

    tick borne, has chemicals in the salivary gland 

    likes epithelial cells; survives in immune systems; enjoys your a.a, nucleic acids, etc.
  6. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    - doesn't respond?
    - symptoms?
    • doesn't respond to cellular attempts to destroy it
    • cyclic fevers (high) (organ failure)
    • if untreated--> death
  7. Leprosy
    - immune response?
    - the disease loves what?
    • body does crappy job of dealing with them
    • proteins allow them to evade the immune system and avoid it 
    • Immune system doesn't clear it; body must go through reconstructive phase and must cage the bacteria (nodules)

    loves cartilage
  8. Three types of Leprosy:
    1) First part?
    1) Lepromatous: classic, most common, massive tissue architectural changes/ disfiguration
  9. Three types of Leprosy:
    2) Second part?
    tuberculoid: moderate/ minor changes in tissue and skin
  10. Three types of Leprosy:
    3) Third part?
    borderline: occurs in places where it is indiginous and exposure occurs in life

    --> no tissue remodeling; but, change in pigment

    • mycolic acid turns it pink in acid fast
    • - remodeled piece of cartilage that traps bacteria

    interferes with melanocytes
  11. Anthrax

    -bacterial species?
    -how to get in?
    -used to be __.
    • - not rare bacterial species
    • - need a large dose to get the pneumonia
    • - used to be dermatological but then became respiratory
  12. What's different about anthrax from other bacteria?
    a lot of bacteria have many toxins, but the strains secrete one type of the toxin. But, anthrax secretes all three. 

    • -edema factor
    • -protective factor
    • -lethal factor
  13. Edema factor
    malfunction of cells and channels-> water rushes in--> swell

    helps it evade the immune system

    potent cytotoxin that kills whatever is around it
  14. Protective factor
    helps it invade the immune system
  15. lethal factor
    potent cytotoxin that kills whatever is around it
  16. With anthrax, early on, what happens? 

    What else is present?
    you get benign symptoms

    injectional anthrax
  17. Lyme Disease
    - rash type
    - how it gets in
    - symptoms
    • - Bullseye rash
    • - in salivary gland of tick, saliva has anticoagulants
    • - early on, you get fever, nausea, headance, a bit of a loss of focal signs 
    • - deposition of crystals in the joints, fatigue (if going on for a long time with no treatment
  18. Botulism and Tetanus

    - caused by?
    - cows?
    - caused by Clostridium

    - cows can eat spores--> no digestion
  19. Botulism spread
    • in a city setting, botulism can be obtained b cans that have germinating spores.
    • deep wound inoculation but also consumed
  20. Tetanus spread
    spores only can cause this. Deep wound inoculation that allows spore entry
  21. Botulism effects
    We don't release acetylcholine
  22. Tetanus effects
    acetylcholine is never digested away--> tense muscles--> no inhalation/ exhalation (same for botulism)

    • tetanic spasms
    • lockjaw: muscles of head and neck
  23. Whooping cough

    - caused by which bacterium
    - symptoms
    - infectious factor
    - preventative factors?
    caused by bordetella pertussis

    cataract coughs that become very distinct

    highly contagious; can be aerosolized or come in through body fluid

    vaccination can stop it; if you don't get the vaccine, you can contract pertussis
  24. Whooping cough

    - what it does

    - what it produces
    it paralyzes cilia

    produces three toxins: hemaglutinin, tracheal cytotoxin, dermonecrotic toxin
  25. hemaglutinin
    allows association with ciliated cells
  26. tracheal cytotoxin
    damages protein components (motor), shutting down protein synthesis in those cells
  27. Dermonecrotic toxin
    potent; kills everything

    • - first, ECM components of the upper trachea are killed
    • - then, it constricts blood vessels
    • - starts killing stuff
  28. Tuberculosis
    - how does the body deal with it
    • does a bad job
    • Ghon complexes form: little vaults made of lung tissue that cages the bacteria, but also causes the normal functioning of the tissue to be affected
  29. Tuberculosis
    - what must you have to spread it 
    - a controlled case can do what
    - if the ghon complex bursts, what can happen?
    - must have the active form of the disease to spread it

    - a controlled case can be reactivated by bursting of the Ghon complex--> breaks out and bacilli go out

    - if open to the pleural cavity, this is miliary tuberculosis (milis; seed or seeding)
  30. With miliary tuberculosis, what happens?
    you're not coughing but bacteria go to many places; takes iron, food, etc

    it can go to the liver and ghon complexes formed. The areas don't do their normal metabolic functions. 

    First, the liver is affected, then kidney, then the GI tract

    multinucleate cells that are due to bacteria form (Syncytium)
  31. Diphtheria

    - caused by __. 

    - what is it used for? 

    - toxin?
    - clostridium diphtheria

    - biological warfare

    - normally expressed by having a gram to kill a large amount of people
  32. Diphtheria

    - how does it present itself
    presents itself first as a respiratory disease

    fluid and inflammatory things in the respiratory tract

    grey pseudomembrane--> normal in the front; behind the pseudomembrane is a ton of dead cells; 

    diptheria shuts down all protein synthesis, casing zones of necrosis all throughout the upper respiratory tract
  33. Bubonic Plague
    - bacterium
    - presentation of it?
    Yersinia pestis, the most deadly

    massive hemmorhage of lungs; black gelatinous fluid

    hyperreactive lymph node called a bubo, whcih can be as large as 1/2 a lemon and break--> pus comes out
  34. Bubonic plague

    - systemic? 

    - methods of obtaining it?
    all throughout the body and begins to clot stuff

    1) can be obtained via cadavers; (2) bitten by fleas; (3) bitten by rodents, which carry the bacteria in their oral cavity
  35. Two forms of bubonic plague?

  36. Bubonic version of the plague
    50-70% mortality

    you get bitten--> inected bacteria go through bondy via lymphatic system--> bubo

    wait a week and you get black hemmorhagic lymph nodes, which may be a little too late at that point
  37. Pneumonic version
    pretty much a death sentence (99.99%)

    direct contact via aersolized--> entire immune system affected
Card Set:
2014-10-30 19:45:18
Test Two
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