Chem 1A Chapter 4

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cheerios258
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287346
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Chem 1A Chapter 4
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2014-10-28 17:39:21
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Chem 1A
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chapter 4 early quantum theory
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  1. Valance electrons
    The electrons in the outermost shell
  2. Ionization enery
    the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in the gas phase
  3. 1st ionization energy
    the energy needed to strip an electron from a neutral atom - removal of 1 electron (+1 charge)
  4. Is the value for ionization energy larger or smaller when indicating a greater difficulty removing electrons?
    The value is larger (positive).
  5. As the positive charge in the nucleus ____ with each ionization, the attraction between the nucleus and the remaining individual electrons also _____.
    As the positive charge in the nucleus grows with each ionization, the attraction between the nucleus and the remaining individual electrons also increases.
  6. True or False.
    As a periodic trend, the ionization increases from left to right.
    True
  7. Ionization energy increase from left to right and from the ___ to the ___ of the periodic table.
    Ionization energy increase from left to right and from the bottom to the top of the periodic table.
  8. True or False.
    Core electrons are really hard to remove.
    True.
  9. ____ ____ are used to determine formal charge and oxidation #s.
    Valance electrons.
  10. Formal Charge
    reflects the difference between the # of valance electrons  and the # of electrons that the atom "owns"
  11. The example of formal charge
  12. Oxidation number
    is the reflection of the reality of electron ownership, regardless of the electron distribution on paper.
  13. True or False.
    Noble gas elements have lower ionization energies than alkaline earth metals.
    • False.
    • All alkaline earth metals have lower ionization energies than the noble gases
  14. Arrange the following in order of decreasing first ionization energy:

    Kr
    Sr
    Rn
    Ne
    • Highest Ne
    •             Kr
    •             Rn
    • Lowest  Sr
  15. How are waves compromised?
    By their amplitude, wavelength, and frequency.
  16. What is amplitude?
    The vertical height of the wave from equilibrium to the top of the crest.
  17. What is wavelength?
    distance between adjacent crests (from the top of one crest to the next top crest)
  18. What is frequency?
    the number of cycles (wave crests) that pass through a stationary point in a given interval
  19. Which is the false statement:
    A. Wavelength and frequency are inversely proportional.
    B. Energy is directly proportional to frequency.
    C. Frequency is inversely proportional to the speed of the wave.
    C. Frequency is inversely proportional to the speed of the wave.

    frequency is directly proportional to the speed of the wave.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. True or False.
    Wave frequency is inversely proportional to the wave length.
    True.

    Wave may have small frequency but large wavelength or small wavelength with high frequency.
  21. Convert 1 MHz to s-1
    106 s-1
  22. what units are wave length measured in?
    meters
  23. Frequency is measured in which units?
    s-1
  24. What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
    Is radiation with wavelengths ranging from 10-15 to 105 meters.
  25. What kind of radiation is detectable to the human eye?
    The visible spectrum (~400-750 nm)
  26. ____ _____ is when all the wave lengths are present.
    Continuous spectrum
  27. Arrange the wavelengths of the following from highest energy to the lowest:

    Ultra violet
    Infrared
    Radio
    Visible Light
    • Ultra violet
    • Visible light
    • Infrared
    • Radio
  28. Arrange the following from largest wavelength to smallest:
    Gamma Ray
    Radio
    Visible Light
    Infrared
    Microwave
    • Radio
    • Microwave
    • Infrared
    • Visible light
    • Gamma Ray
  29. Constructive interference
    when waves interact in phase they combine and the result is a wave 2x amplitude.

  30. Diffraction
    • A wave will bend around an object or an opening that is comparable in size to its wavelength.
  31. 'blackbody'
    a hypothetical object that would be able to absorb all radiant energy that contacts the object (thus appearing black)
  32. Planck's explanation
    Energy is proportional to the frequency of light emitted by the object.
  33. Energy units
    Joules
  34. In words what is the equation:
    Energy = planks constant x frequency

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