2.1 Understanding individuals within environments
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2.1 Understanding individuals within environments
Kelly ecological principles) interdependence (2)
-different parts of an eco-system are interconnected
-changes in any one part of the system will have ripple effects on other parts of the system
Kelly ecological principles) Cycling of resources
Systems can be understood by examining how resources are used, distributed, conserved, and transformed
*personal, social, and physical resources
Kelly ecological principles) cycling of resources- what can be a key intervention for this concept?
Social settings have many more resources that are commonly recognized thus harnessing these under utilized resources can be a key intervention
Kelly ecological principles) adaptation (2)
-focuses on transaction between person & environment
-individuals, settings, and systems must adapt to changing conditions cyclically
Kelly ecological principles) Succession
Expects that settings and individuals change over time
Kelly ecological principles) SUccession: what does this focus on?
The historical context of a problem
Kelly ecological principles) succession: what is this important for? (2)
problem definition and planning interventions
Shared perceptions of a setting
Social climate) what are the 3 dimensions?
-system maintenance and change
What are the 4 ecological principles (Kelly)
-cycling of resources
Social climate) relationships:
Mutual supportiveness, involvement, and cohesion
Social climate) personal development
Whether individual growth is fostered in the setting
Social climate) system maintenance and change
Settings emphasis on order, clarity of rules, and control of behavior
Social climate) what do they usually use to assess microsystems and organizational settings?
Unique scales that apply to the appropriate field
Social climate) what are 3 additional setting qualities that they measure?
-organizational policies and norms
Social climate) scales: what is supra-personal factors?
-adding together the individual factors in setting
**balance of gender, ethnicity, disabilities, class etc
Social climate) what can the comparisons of social climate perceptions do?
It may lead to conversations about intervention
Social climate) scales: what can they do over time?
They can track changes in climate over time
Social climate) scales: what have social climate scores been associated with?
individual and setting outcomes
*satisfaction, performance, well being etc
Settings can create predictable relationships among members that persist over time
Social regularities) what do they focus on?
On routine patterns of social relationships among the elements in a setting
Social regularities) what does it call attention to?
To role relationships, power, and resources
Social regularities) Change AND social regularities
Social regularities can be obstacles to change
* they are so engrained within our norms
Social regularities) what distinguishes social regularity and behavior settings?
Consideration of power relationships, resources, and inequalities
Social regularities) can schools be sorting institutions for social roles? How?
Who took AP classes? Who took special ed classes?
Social regularities) 3 ways to find social regularities?
-search for patterns of behavior within a setting
-examine roles of setting members
-consider power relationships and patterns of behavior
Social regularities) 3 research methods for IDing these
Social regularities) contributions: what are they explicit about?
-the importance of exploring roles, power, resources, and inequality
Social regularities) contributions: what type of change will occur if social regularities can be altered?
2nd order change
Social regularities) 2 limitations
-process takes a long time to assess
-best suited for case studies
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) who was it developed by?
Robert and Louise barker
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) what is ecological psychology?
Identify behavior settings and understand physical features and social circuits that maintain them
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) what are primary units for ecological psychology?
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) what is behavior settings?
Have a place, a time, and a standing pattern of behavior
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) is a behavior setting just a physical place?
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) Physical settings can have more than one behavior setting? T or F?
*Methodist church example: hosts weddings, baptisms, mass etc
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) are individuals interchangeable in behavior settings?
* if you take me away from AT&T, somebody will replace me and act the similar fashion doing the same job tasks
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) what are the 4 rules that behavior settings have?
-deviation countering circuits
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) program circuits
Guide the standing behavior pattern
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) goal circuits
Satisfy goals of individuals
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) which 2 rules have control mechanisms?
-deviation countering circuits
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) optimally populated: 3 characteristics?
-has as many or more players than roles
-potential for marginalization of students not in roles
-more characteristic of larger schools
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) Underpopulated setting (3)
-has more roles than members
-increases members sense of responsibility for maintaining the setting
Ecological psychology and behavior settings) limitations (2)
-model only focuses on behavior and discounts cultural meanings and subjective processes
-underplays how setting are created and changed
Activity settings) quick summary of itq
Behavior setting plus subjective meanings
Activity settings) what needs to happen in order to understand activity settings?
One must need to understand something about the culture they are observing
Activity settings) what does it contend?
People actively create the significance of these settings
Activity settings) what does it introduce within psychology field?
A way to study culture
Activity settings) which 4 fields have benefitted from this?
Activity settings) 6 key elements of activity settings
-people and interpersonal relationships
Activity settings) what is intersubjectivity? (2)
-beliefs, assumptions, values, and emotional experiences that are shared by setting participants
-it develops over time
Activity settings) limitations of this approach (2)
-requires time and resources to gather data
-limited comparisons of activity settings across contexts
Examines the influence of physical characteristics of a setting on behavior
*focuses on how the environment is build
Environmental psychology) what does it grow out of?
Environmental psychology) what is lewin's equation?
B= f PE
Environmental psychology) minimal focus on...
Relationships between people compared with other approaches
Environmental psychology) interests of environmental psychology: (3)
-application of science to social action
Environmental psychology) interests of environmental psychology: environmental stressors
-noise, air pollution, crowded housing
Environmental psychology) interests of environmental psychology: environmental design
Architectural design and neighborhood features
Environmental psychology) interests of environmental psychology: application of science to social action
-road construction by school and how it affects kids health and learning
The effects of neighborhoods) distal risk processes
Neighborhood characteristics associated with individual problems
*bad hoods typically have more crimes and mental illness
The effects of neighborhoods) protective processes (2)
*social ties, sense of community, safety
*parenting styles mentoring
Creating alternative settings) mediating structure?
Creating alternative settings to provide conditions and resources that support the functioning of people for whom the current options do not work
Creating alternative settings) how do alternative settings usually work?
Occurs at organizational level in response to stressors at micro, organizational, and macro levels
Creating alternative settings)