The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
What are some strong Nucleophiles?
What are some examples of Weak Nucleophiles?
What kind of reaction does a Primary carbon favor?
What kind of reaction does a Tertiary carbon favor?
What kind of reaction does an Aprotic Polar solvent favor?
What kind of run does a Protic polar solvent favor?
What is a Polar Protic solvent?
- A solvent that con taints a H+ bonded to an O or N
- Contain a dissociable H and can donate the proton
What is a Polar Aprotic solvent?
- Do NOT contain a H bonded to an O or N
- Do NOT contain a dissociable H and cannot donate a proton
What are some examples of Polar Protic solvents?
What are some examples of Polar Aprtoic solvents?
What is a Substrate?
- The electrophile in a substitution rxn
- The compound containing the LG
What are common LG's?
Halogens such as Cl Br and I
What is a Concerted process?
A process when the nucleohilic attack and the loss of the leaving group occur simultaneously
What is a Stepwise process?
A process when the loss of the leaving group occurs first followed by the nucleophilic attack
In an Sn2 run, when the reactant exhibits the S configuration and the product exhibits the R configuration what is the process called?
Inversion of configuration
What are substrate reactions?
Rxns that exchange one functional group for another
What is the electrophile?
The substrate, must contain a LG
What is the process in a Concerted Process?
- When the nucelohilic attack and loss of a LG occur simultaneously
What is a stepwise process?
- First the LG leaves and then the nucleophile attacks
What is necessary when the substrate is an Alcohol?
Proton transfer at the begging of the Sn1 run
What is Solvolysis?
When the solvent functions as a nucleophile
What doe Protic solvents favor?
What doe Polar aprotic solvents favor?
What is necessary if the LG is an Alcohol?
A proton transfer at the begging of the Sn2 run
The more substituted alkene is called?
- Zaitsev product
- Generally the major product
The Less substituted alkene is often called the?
- Hofmann product
- Generally the minor product
Which position predominates, Cis or Trans?
What is Stereoselectivity?
A reaction is stereoselective when a substrate produces two stereoisomers in unequal amounts
How do you predict the which is the major and the minor products?
- 1. Determine the function of the reagent
- 2. Analyze the substrate and determine the expected mechanism
- 3. Consider any relevant regiochemical and stereo chemical requirements
What is a Hofmann product?
- Least substituted
- Least stable alkene
- "Kinetic product
What is a Zaitsev product?
- Most substituted
- Most stable alkene
- Thermodynamic product
What is refioselectivity?
The tendency of a reaction to preferentially produce one constitutional isomer
What is Steroselevctivity?
The tendency of a reaction to produce one of two stereoisomers in unequal amounts
What is Stereospecificity?
Used to describe a reaction in which the configuration of the product is depended on the configuration of the starting material.
What is an example of Stereospecificity?
- R gives one, S gives an other product
- E gives one product and Z gives another
What are examples of a "bulky base"?
What is the anti-coplanar transition state?
- Staggered conformation
- Lower energy
Syn-coplanar transition state?
- Eclipsed conformation
- Higher energy