Nutrition 3

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bobbie2013
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Nutrition 3
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2010-08-02 21:53:07
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NUTR 330
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  1. The pyloric sphincter

    a) prevents stomach contents from backflowing into the esophagus

    b) prevents intestinal contentss from backflowing into the stomach

    c) holds the food in the stomach so that it can be liquified and mixed to form chyme

    d) b and c
    d) b and c
  2. The small and large intestines are composed of several segments. They are present in the following sequence:

    a) duodenum, ileum, jejunum, colon, rectum

    b) ileum, duodenum, jejunum, rectum, colon

    c) ileum, duodenum, jejunum, colon, rectum

    d) duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum
    d) duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum
  3. Distinguish between mechanical and chemical digestion
    Mechanical digestion is the breakdown of foods by the action of the teeth and muscles. It results in the production of food particles mixed with and suspended in fluid.

    Chemical digestion is the breakdown of foods by digestive enzymes into basic units that can be absorbed and used by the body
  4. Distinguish between peristalysis and segentation
    Peristalsis is a form of muscular propulsion that results from the alternating contraction of the circular and longitudinal muscles of the GI tract. The result is a wavelike movement that forces the food along the tract

    Segmentation is a periodic squeezing of the circular muscles that results in mixing of the intestinal contents; it also increases contact of intestinal contents with the intestinal wall
  5. What are the physical characteristics of chyme, and why is it important in the digestive process?
    Chyme is a semi-liquid mixture of tiny food particles produced in the stomach and expelled into the duodenum. The physical characteristics of chyme allow the digestive enzymes greater access to the food particles.
  6. __________is not a form of mechanical digestion

    a) Mastication

    b) Peristalsis

    c) Segentation

    d) Bacterial fermentation in the large intestine
    d) Bacterial fermentation in the large intestine
  7. The breakdown of nutrients into basic absorbable units is accomplised through _________ digestion
    -Chemical
  8. In the digestion of food, the role of the stomach is to

    a) produce mucus to neutralize hydrochloric acid

    b) start the digestion of protein and fat

    c) hyrolyze starch to simpler units

    d) secrete digestive enzymes that act on nutrients in the duodenum
    b) start the digestion of protein and fat
  9. The function of mucus in the stomach is to

    a) neutralize stomach acid

    b) activate pepsin in the digestive of protein

    c) protect the stomach wall from being digested by gastric juice

    d) kill the bacteria that enter the body in food
    c) protect the stomach wall from being digested by gastic juice
  10. Explain the importance of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
    Hydrochloric acid prevents bacterial growth and kills most bacteria in the stomach. It also catalyzes the process by which proteins are broken down into usable units
  11. Of the functions listed below, only__________is not performed by bacteria in the intestine

    a) producing a variety of minerals

    b) producing a variety of vitamins

    c) degrading some of the dietary fibre

    d) preventing pathogenic bacteria from attacking the GI system
    a) producing a variety of minerals
  12. The villi and microvilli of the small intestine

    a) secrete digestive enzymes

    b) trap nutrient molecules for absorption

    c) increase the surface area of the small intestine

    d) b and c

    e) a, b, and c
    e) a, b, and c
  13. The lymphatic system is responsible for the absorption of __________from the small intestine

    a) minerals and water

    b) fats and fat-soluble vitamins

    c) glucose

    d) all vitamins and minerals
    b) fats and fat-soluble vitamins
  14. Of the products of digestion listed below,__________do/does not have direct access to the bloodstream

    a) short-and medium-chain fatty acids

    b) vitamin C

    c) long-chain fatty acids

    d) amino acids

    e) a and c
    c) long-chain fatty acids
  15. Blood leaving the digestive system goes to the _______
    -liver
  16. When someone appears to be choking, the first thing to do is to

    a) perform the Heimlich manoeuver

    b) ask the person to make a sound

    c) hit or pat the person's back several times

    d) offer a glass of water
    b) ask the person to make a sound
  17. What is constipation? Discuss the different ways of preventing it
    Constipation, a condition in which bowel movement is difficult, is associated with discomfort and pain caused by the hard texture of the stools. Several ways of preventing constipation are to

    • - respond to the defecation signal
    • -include prune juice, which contains a natural laxative substance, in the diet
    • -increase dietary fibre (eg. wheat bran, vegetables, and grains)
    • -increase fluid intake
    • -increase physical activity
  18. Of the factors listed below,_________is/are not a major cause of ulcers

    a) prolonged levels of stress

    b) the use of some anti-inflammatory drugs

    c) disorders that cause excessive gastric acid secretion

    d) bacterial infection with Helicobacter pylori
    a) prolonged levels of stress

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