Bio 381 Term Exam 3

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Bio 381 Term Exam 3
2014-11-04 18:36:49
pollution biology
Term exam 3
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  1. Two case studies of Canadian lakes with high concentrations of organic contaminants in fish?
    • Lake Labarge, Yukon
    • Bow Lake, Alberta
  2. Lake Labarge - which contaminants in what fish?
    High concentrations of DDT in lake trout and burbot
  3. Bow Lake - which contaminants in what fish?
    PCBs, DDT, toxaphene, and dieldrin in mountain lake fish
  4. Possible causes for contamination at high elevations?
    • The cold condensation effect
    • Melting glaciers
    • High lipid storage of invertebrates in alpine, prolonged life cycles
  5. Flame retardants?
    Brominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)
  6. Perfluorinated Acids and Alcohols uses?
    Surface treatment of paper, textiles, leather, upholstry (lining mcdonalds fries containers -> grease resistant)
  7. Mechanical containment or recovery (oil spills)
    • Primary line of defense against oil spills
    • Uses equipment like booms, barriers, skimmers, natural and synthetic sorbent materials
    • Used to capture and store the spilled oil until it can be disposed of properly
  8. Chemical and biological response methods (oil spills)
    • CAn be used in conjunction with mechanical means
    • Dispersants and gelling agents most usefull to keep oil from reaching shorelines
    • Biological agents (bacteria) have potential to assist recovery in sensitive areas like shorelines, marshes, wetlands
  9. Physical response methods (oil spills)
    • Used to clean up shorelines
    • Natural processes like evaporation, oxidation, biodegradation ¬†can start cleanup process
    • Physical methods like wiping with sorbent materials, pressure washing, raking and bulldozing assist the natural processes
  10. Scare tactics (oil spills)
    • Used to protect birds and animals from keeping them away from the oil spill
    • Uses devices such as propane scare-cans, floating dummies, helium-filled balloons
  11. Booms
    • Floating barriers to oil, made of plastic, metal, other materials
    • Only help with surface oil
    • Don't work as well in the ocean b/c of waves
  12. Skimmers
    Boats and other devices that can remove oil from the sea surface before it reaches sensitive areas along a coastline
  13. In-situ burning
    Burning of an oil slick or part of a slick before it reaches the coast (more contraversial)
  14. Airplane or boat applied dispersants
    Chemicals that disperse the oil into the water column, so less stays at the surface where it could affect beaches, hopes that bacteria will be able to get rid of most of the water column oil (also contraversial)
  15. Oil Dispersing Agents
    • Chemicals that contain surfactants and/or solvent compounds that break petroleum oil into small droplets
    • Heavy crude oils don't disperse as well as light to medium weight oils
  16. Environmental factors that affect oil dispersing agents
    • Water salinity, temperature, conditions at sea (choppiness of waves)
    • EPA policy don't allow dispersing agents to be used in freshwater unless authorized by On-Scene Coordinator
    • Work best in warm water
  17. Oil gelling agents
    • aka solidifiers, chemicals that react with oil to form rubber-like solids
    • Energy provided by waves increases contact b/w chemicals and oil for better solidification
    • gelled oil is removed from the water using nets
    • BUT large quantities must be used (as much as 3x the amount of oil spilled)
  18. Oil removing biological agents
    • chemicals or organisms that increase the rate at which natural biodegradation occurs
    • done by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and yeast
  19. Exxon oil spill amount vs. BP Deepwater Horizon spill amount?
    • Exxon: 41.6 million litres
    • BP: 779 million litres (estimated)
  20. Isotope
    Any of two or more species of atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic number and nearly identical chemical behavior, but with differing atomic mass or mass number
  21. Nuclear fission
    Splitting an atom into one or more smaller ones
  22. Nuclear fusion
    Fusing two or more smaller atoms into a larger one
  23. Epidemiology
    branch of medical science that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population and factors determining that distribution
  24. Source reduction (waste)
    Actions to reduce the actual production of waste, such as purchasing "green" products, composting, or reusing items
  25. Waste Reduction
    • Recovering items for recycling
    • Recovering materials for composting
  26. Waste disposal
    • For stuff we can't really deal with
    • - incinerate waste
    • - disposal of waste in landfill
  27. 3 Rs
    Reduce, reuse, recycle
  28. 6 Steps taken at Edmonton's Composting Facility
    • 1. Tipping
    • 2. Mixing
    • 3. Screening
    • 4. Composting
    • 5. Compost refining¬†
    • 6. Odour treatment
  29. Humidex
    summer temperature and humidity index
  30. IAP
    indoor air pollution
  31. Sulfur dioxide
    SO2, irritant gas, produced when sulfur-containing fuels like coal and oil are burned
  32. Carbon Monoxide
    CO, forms when carbon in fuels doesn't completely burn
  33. Particle/particulate pollution
    • - fine particles (less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter)
    • - coarse dust particles (b/w 2.5-10 micrometers in diameter)
  34. Ozone
    O3, bad ozone formed when pollutants emitted by cars, power plants, refineries, etc. react chemically with sunlight
  35. Two common effects of air pollutants?
    Respiratory effects and cardiovascular effects
  36. Temperature inversion
    Instead of there being a temperature gradiant from the air above earth into the atmosphere, a temperature inversion has a layer of warm air between two cold air layers, trapping pollutants near the earth
  37. DALYs
    Disability-adjusted life years
  38. Primary wastewater treatment systems
    Very basic
  39. Tertiary wastewater treatment systems
    best systems
  40. Superfund sites
    Sites that have high levels of some contaminant due to past industry activity