state and local government

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state and local government
2014-10-29 17:59:09
state local government
Political Science
Political Science State and Local government chapters 6-9
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  1. Original Name of the Democratic Party
    • Democratic Republicans 
    • Anti-Federalist
  2. Geography-wise the republican party support came from what area?
    The south
  3. Rule of Law: Democratic party V. Jones
    Do away with the Blanket Primary, all candidates on one ballot.
  4. Government tends to be organized on a no partisan basis at the ____ level?
  5. The 2002 McCain - Feingold campaign Finance Law place limits on ____ money?
  6. Another term for Lobbyist?
    Legislative Liason
  7. Indirect lobbying involves (three things)
    Media, rallies and other ways of influencing public opinion
  8. Cause lobbyists often use _____ to sway public opinion and pressure public officials?
  9. State Parties have evolved into ____ organizations?
  10. Who supports the Democrats?
    Women, Minorities and the poor/underprivileged.
  11. Who supports the Republicans?
    Coperate america/ small businesses, Males, wealthy, protestants
  12. The role of political parties in american life can best be described as _____?
    Ineffective/ less dominant
  13. Political Machines (bosses) encourage?
    Patronage (reward for loyalty), Corruption, higher degree of turnover for offices
  14. ______ are meetings of delegates during which candidates are nominated and party agendas are established.
    Party Conventions
  15. Define Realignment and Dealignment elections.
    • Switch form one party to another
    • Lack of nationwide acceptance of one political party/ no party dominance.
  16. Political parties often are the ones to_______ and ______?
    Nominate candidates and raise funds
  17. Variation in political competition across states can be contributed to?
    • Increase mobility of population
    • Interest groups
    • redistricting
    • shift in political culture
  18. Why haven't independent and third parties been successful in the US?
    • they take votes form reps and gems
    • winner take all system
  19. How do Interest groups help political change?
    • Funding
    • advertising
    • organizing campaigns
  20. Ticket Splitting?
    voters supporting a republican president while at the same time supporting a democrat senator.
  21. Swing voters?
    Inconsistent voters who hold no loyalty to any party.
  22. PAC (Political Action Committee)
    Group formed to raise money for a candidate
  23. Cause Lobbying?
    When interest groups back or promote and issue
  24. Contract Lobbying?
    When lobbyists work for various clients
  25. Candidate Centered Politics
    Candidates promote themselves rather than their party
  26. Redistricting makes most races _____ for most incumbents?
  27. What is the responsible party model?
    Theory that parties give clearer policies and that they are accountable for the outcome
  28. T/F Political parties tend to play a larger role at the state level as compared to the national level?
  29. T/F Primaries allow rank and file voters to choose nominees for public office?
  30. T/F In 1996, the US supreme court placed a limit on independent expenditures by Political Parties?
  31. T/F Interest groups tend to support incumbents over new candidate for office?
  32. Which state has the largest number of States Legislators?
    New Hampshire
  33. What happens to most bills introduced in state legislators?
    They are killed in committee
  34. Retired persons account for about ____ % of state legislators nationwide?
  35. Which stat has the largest % of women serving in state legislature?
  36. State legislatures today are ____.
    More effective and more fair than in the past. more transparent with more women
  37. Professional legislatures.
    Meets full time with high pay and large staffs
  38. Staes with part time legislatures:
    Minnesota, Idaho, New Mexico, S & N Dakota, Kansas, Wyoming, Montana
  39. The largest battles in a state legislature tends to be _____?
  40. What affects the introduction of legislation?
    Constituents, governments, lobbyists
  41. Who tends to have the largest effect on whether or not legislators introduce a bill?
  42. The likelihood that a legislature will address an issue can be affected by?
    Personal intersets, constituent interest, Interest group activity, change in composition of legislature.
  43. What is constituent work (case work)?
    Work done by legislators to help earn the vote in his district.
  44. What is oversight?
    Legislative role in observing the executive brand in executing the law.
  45. American public's perception of legislators is....
    that they do nothing / spend their time doing nothing
  46. What is gerrymandering?
    Redistricting in favor of a party.
  47. Baker v Carr
    • 1962, Gerrymandering is unconstitutional 
    • 1 man = 1 vote
  48. Wesberry v Sanders
    1964, Us reps must represent 50% = 50%
  49. Reynolds v Sims
    1964, State legislature must be based on population.
  50. What are Majority-minority districts?
    Members of a minority group make up the majority of the pop. or electorate.
  51. The national conference on state legislature term limits poll reveals that term limits have made legislative staff more _____.
  52. Logrolling and Pork Legislation:
    • The practice of vote trading for favors
    • Money for states through unnecessary legislation
  53. Riders:
    An amendment to a bill that is not central to the bill's intent. Will not work if a governor has the line-item veto.
  54. Only state state with a Unicameral legislature?
  55. Reasons for a bicameral legislature:
    • The great compromise:
    • Equality between large and small states 
    • House = population - reps are everyday man
    • Senate =  equality - reps are elites
  56. What is Pigeon holing?
    Killing a bill by putting it on the bottom of the pile
  57. What is a Filibuster?
    A debate that under US senate rules can drag on, blocking final action on he bill under consideration and preventing other bills from being debated
  58. Cloture Rule:
    1917, vote to end a filibuster 1/6 of the senators
  59. Trustee and Instructed Delegates:
    • Legislators who believe that they were elected to follow their own judgements
    • Legislators who believe that they were elected to represent the desires of his constituents
  60. Malapportionment
    A situation in which the principle of equal representation is violated
  61. The public tends to have a _____ view of Professional legislators?
  62. State legislatures tend to address issues _____ the Federal Government addresses them?
  63. Ever since _____ the press has taken an adversarial position toward government?
  64. T/F Newspapers tend to write stories that criticize legislatures?
  65. The Three basic purposes of all state legislators are to?
    • Create Law
    • Oversight to other branches
    • Serve constituents
  66. What is a "citizen legislature?"
    A part time legislature with few resources with a small staff and low pay
  67. The four functions of State Legislatures:
    • Law making
    • oversight
    • representing
    • constituent service
  68. T/F Today governors serve longer terms than in the past?
  69. Most governors are able to do what?
  70. Voters see governors as ......
    Mini Presidents
  71. T/F After the American Revolution governors held almost no power?
  72. What is the Appointment Power?
    The governor's ability to select the people who run the government.
  73. As chief spokesperson for a state, a governor is expected to...
    attract jobs and industry and to lobby money from members of congress
  74. Governors wishing to promote their states will do what....
    travel to promote tourism, make deals with out of states companies
  75. As Party Chief for the state, the governor often is expected to do...
    select party chairman, raise money, campaign for individuals, patronage, commander in chief of the national guard
  76. T/F The national guard id deployed by the governor in times of crisis?
  77. What are formal powers?
    Explicitly granted powers given to the governor
  78. The final governor to be fronted power to veto legislation was from....
    North Carolina 1997
  79. Governors power to grant pardons recently has been affected by.....
    DNA testing, governor of Illinois pardoned 167 inmates in death row
  80. Popular support for a governor can do what....
    Cause other legislators to accept his programs
  81. Historically most governors have been....
    White middle aged men with previous experience
  82. The comment issue in gubernatorial elections has been?
    State Economy
  83. Gubernatorial campaigns are....
    expensive, more professional, attract more attention
  84. The most successful governors are those who....
    Raise funds
  85. When are the majority o gubernatorial elections held?
    every four years during the presidential elections
  86. Managing state elections fall on who?
    Secretary of State, he drafts the ballot
  87. What are informal powers?
    How you persuade people, your character and personal abilities
  88. Governors can use their appointment powers to....
    • Influence policy
    • Appoint people to gov. jobs, committees and boards
    • award supporters
  89. What is a recall election?
    A Special election that allows the people to remove an elected official from office. Needs to be instigated with a petition
  90. Governors are generally viewed ______ favorably than legislators?
  91. List 5 formal powers of most Governors:
    • Appointment
    • veto
    • Call special sessions of the legislature
    • pardon 
    • prepare the budget
  92. The role to the lieutenant governor and the attorney general:
    • preside over the senate, assign bills, break deadlocks, head of state agencies, appoint
    • Institue civil suits, force open meetings
  93. List three informal powers of the governor:
    • popular support
    • party support
    • ability to communicate
  94. T/F A state may grant many power to its governor still may elect a weak individual into office?
  95. T/F The Governor, and not the Federal government has the Final authority over where to deploy the National Guard?
  96. Governors can only achieve their agenda through their Formal Powers?
  97. T/F The power to prepare the state budget may be governors most powerful formal tool?
  98. The power to call a special legislative session is an example of a _____ power?
  99. The various roles governor must assume upon taking office:
    • Chief legislator
    • head of state/chief executive
    • chief spokesman for state
    • party leader
  100. What are the three methods of sentencing guidelines employed by states?
    • Truth and Sentencing Laws
    • Habitual offender (three strikes) Laws
    • Mandatory minimum sentences
  101. What is Precedent?
    The use of the past to intemperate decision making in the present.
  102. Immediately following the American Revolution how were judges chosen?
  103. 6th Amendment
    Right to speedy and public trial in criminal cases
  104. In a criminal case, how many members are on the jury and the jury decision must be ......
    12, Unanimous
  105. In noncapital cases the sentence is issued by.....
    the judge through a bench trial
  106. JAIL 4 Judges advocates....
    Punishment for judges for unpopular decisions
  107. What is a plea bargain?
    When an accused person pleads guilty for a lessened sentence.
  108. Why give judges lifetime tenures?
    Their decision would not be swayed by the public. Guaranteed independence
  109. State courts of Appeals are know as
    • Intermediate Appeal court
    • Courts of last resorts
  110. How are judges selected on the state level?
    • Merit
    • election 
    • appointment
  111. Retention election is part of the _____ plan?
    Missouri, if a vacancy offers three individuals are nominated, that the governor select on, in the next election the official can run again to keep his position.
  112. Supportes of electing judges say that...
    • Elections allow greater popular control over judiciary/ more public accountability 
    • Compatible with democratic traditions
    • Greater representation of minorities and women
    • prevents elitism.
  113. What is a Pure appointive system?
    Judicial officials are appointed by the governor solely
  114. Merit selection of judges is an attempts to.....
    • Limit partisan politics
    • strike a balance between partisan election and life time appointment.
  115. Partisanship is shown by judges serving _____ terms?
  116. Who or what is a prosecutor?
    A gov. official or lawyer that prosecutes in behalf of the people/state
  117. Defense attorneys jobs are made more difficult by....
    • large case loads
    • fewer resources and inadequate funding
    • no oversight
  118. Prosecutor jobs are made more difficult by
    • Big cities (more lawyers/staff/dealing with more serious crime)
    • Balancing the need to serve justice along with the pressures of winning cases
  119. 6th ant 7th amendment are found where?
    Bill of Rights
  120. Defendants rights include....
    Innocent until proven guilty, safe from arrest/searches, right to a lawyer, jury trial, confront witnesses, due process/equal protection, punishment is not cruel and unusual.
  121. Amount of time offenders spend in prison has been increased by....
    • habitual offender laws
    • mandatory minimum sentence 
    • truth and sentencing laws
  122. Who or wha is a magistrate?
    A local official or attorney granted limited judicial authority
  123. Attempts to alleviate judicial caseloads include:
    • Alternative dispute resolution
    • Rocket docket
  124. "Three Strikes" legislation is an example of?
    Habitual offender laws - Life imprisonment.
  125. What is legislative criminalization?
    The passing of a law that makes a crime out of anything the public doesn't like
  126. Define crime:
    Violating the law
  127. What is a civil case?
    A dispute between two private parties.
  128. Voir Dire
    Interviewing and examining the jurors
  129. What is discretionary jurisdiction?
    The power of a court to decide where or not to hear a case
  130. Judicial accountability is ensured by the.....
  131. What is a grand Jury?
    A group of between 16 and 23 citizens who decide if a case should go to trial. If the grand jury decides that it should, and indictment is issued
  132. What is an Activist Judge?
    A judge who is said to act as an independent policy maker by creatively interpreting the constitution or a statute