Lecture: chp. 11 & 12

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edeleon
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287484
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Lecture: chp. 11 & 12
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2014-11-12 06:16:12
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anatomy lever systems
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Exam 3
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Lecture notes only
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  1. This is when a load is closer to the fulcrum than the effort = a small amount of effort will move a large load
    • Mechanical advantage
  2. This is when effort applied to a lever is closer to the fulcrum than the load = large effort to move small load
    • Mechanical disadvantage
  3. This class of lever is when the fulcrum is between the effort and the load.
    • First Class Lever
  4. This class of lever is when the load and effort are on the same side of the fulru, but the effort is FARTHER AWAY THAN THE LOAD
    • Second class lever
  5. This class of lever is when the Load and Effort are on the same side of the fulrum, but the EFFORT IS CLOSER TO THE FULCRUM THAN THE LOAD.
    • 3rd class lever
  6. This function of the nervous system monitors inside and outside environments.
    sensory input
  7. This function of the nervous system interprets and processes sensory information and determines the appropriate response if any
    integration
  8. This function of the nervous system issues commands to effector organs, this can be muscles or glands
    motor output
  9. What are the 3 classes of neurons?
    sensory, interneurons, and motor
  10. T or F: neurons are excitable
    True
  11. T or F Neuroglia are excitable
    False
  12. What are the 3 properties of neurons?
    excitability, conductivity, secretion
  13. This property means a neuron can be stimulated due to some environmental stimuli
    excitability
  14. This property means a neuron can produce traveling and electrical signals along an axon
    conductivity
  15. This property means a neuron can secrete a chemical called a neurotransmitter at the end of the axon
    secretion
    • 1. Dendrites
    • 2. soma = cell body
    • 3. axon
  16. In the CNS, somas cluster together to form this.
    nuclei
  17. In the PNS, somas cluster together to form this
    Ganglia
  18. In the CNS, axons are bundled together to form this.
    tracts
  19. In the PNS, axons cluster together to form this.
    nerves
  20. This is the receiving antenna of the neuron that picks up stimuli/impulses and sends toward the cell body.
    dendrite
  21. What is another name for an axon?
    nerve fiber
  22. This means many bundled fascicles of axons or nerve fibers.
    Nerve
  23. This is a bundle of axons.
    Fascicle
  24. T or F: the smaller diameter a nerve has, the less resistance thee is for impulses.
    False
  25. This CT wraps around a single axon and its myelinsheath
    Endoneuriom
  26. This CT wraps around a group of axons (fascicles)
    Perineurium
  27. This CT wraps around the whole nerve
    Epineurium
  28. This a microtubule of a neuron that functions as a railroad track where motor proteins can transport vessicles with NT, mitochondria.
    Neurotubule
  29. This NT regulates appetite and when we fall asleep
    Seratonin
  30. This NT is involved in emotional responses and addictive behavior
    dopamine
  31. In this type of synaptic connection, the axon terminal sits on a dendrite.
    • Axodendritic synapse
  32. This type of synaptic connection is when an axon terminal sits on a soma.
    • Axosomatic synapse
  33. This type of synaptic cleft is when an axon terminal sits on an axon
    • Axoaxonic synapse
  34. What are the 3 different types of skeletal muscle?
    • 1. skeletal
    • 2. smooth
    • 3. cardia

  35. What class of neuron is this?
    Unipolar

  36. What class of neuron is this?
    Bipolar

  37. What class of neuron is this?
    multipolar
  38. This is when many resynaptic neuron terminals converge onto a SINGLE postsynaptic neuron
    Convergence
  39. This is when ONE presynaptic neuron branches and all branches terminate on different neurons
    Divergence
  40. T or F: there are 4 types of neuroglia cells in the PNS and 2 types in the CNS.
    False: 4 in CNS, 2 in PNS
  41. T or F: neuroglia are non-excitable
    True
  42. T or F: Only oligodendrites do myelination, not schwann cells.
    False: both do myelination
  43. This is the most abundant glial cell in the CNS
    Astrocytes
  44. This type of glial cell is involved in forming tight junctions in the blood-brain barrier
    astrocytes
  45. This type of glial cell converts glucose to lactate and supplies it to the neurons for nourishment.
    Astrocytes
  46. This type of glial cell forms hardened scar tissue, "sclerosis"
    Astrocytes
  47. This tye of glial cell has arm like processes that wraps around a nerve fiber, through myelination.
    Oligodendrites
  48. What is myelination used for?
    Speeds up signal conduction in the nerve fiber
  49. This type of glial cell is a modified epithelial cell that is involved in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid.
    ependyal cell
  50. This type glial cell has no basement membrane and has cilia on the apical surface which helps circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    ependymal cell
  51. This glial cell is the smallest and least abundant neuroglia in the CNS
    microglial cell
  52. This glial cell engulfs and cleans up debris dead nervous tissue & microorganisms
    microglial cells
  53. Which 4 types of glial cells are in the CNS?
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrites
    • ependymal
    • microglial
  54. which 2 types of glial cells are in the PNS?
    • Schwann
    • satellite
  55. This type of glial cell wraps around nerve fibers in the PNS to produce myelin sheaths and assists in regeneration of damaged fibers.
    Schwann cells
  56. this glial cell surrounds the neuron cell body in ganglia of the PNS
    satellite cells
  57. This process produces a myelin sheath
    Hyelination
  58. These two cells creates myeline sheaths. One in the PNS and the other in the CNS
    • Schwann cells - PNS
    • Oligodendrocytes - CNS
  59. Myelinated axons make up this color of matter
    white matter
  60. The cell bodies plus dendrites make up this color matter
    gray matter
  61. t or f: a fully damaged neuron can be fixed by the schwann cell
    False: schwann cells can only regenerate the damaged axon

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