Lecture: chp. 11 & 12

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  1. This is when a load is closer to the fulcrum than the effort = a small amount of effort will move a large load
    • Mechanical advantage
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  2. This is when effort applied to a lever is closer to the fulcrum than the load = large effort to move small load
    • Mechanical disadvantage
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  3. This class of lever is when the fulcrum is between the effort and the load.
    • First Class Lever
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  4. This class of lever is when the load and effort are on the same side of the fulru, but the effort is FARTHER AWAY THAN THE LOAD
    • Second class lever
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  5. This class of lever is when the Load and Effort are on the same side of the fulrum, but the EFFORT IS CLOSER TO THE FULCRUM THAN THE LOAD.
    • 3rd class lever
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  6. This function of the nervous system monitors inside and outside environments.
    sensory input
  7. This function of the nervous system interprets and processes sensory information and determines the appropriate response if any
    integration
  8. This function of the nervous system issues commands to effector organs, this can be muscles or glands
    motor output
  9. What are the 3 classes of neurons?
    sensory, interneurons, and motor
  10. T or F: neurons are excitable
    True
  11. T or F Neuroglia are excitable
    False
  12. What are the 3 properties of neurons?
    excitability, conductivity, secretion
  13. This property means a neuron can be stimulated due to some environmental stimuli
    excitability
  14. This property means a neuron can produce traveling and electrical signals along an axon
    conductivity
  15. This property means a neuron can secrete a chemical called a neurotransmitter at the end of the axon
    secretion
  16. Image Upload
    • 1. Dendrites
    • 2. soma = cell body
    • 3. axon
  17. In the CNS, somas cluster together to form this.
    nuclei
  18. In the PNS, somas cluster together to form this
    Ganglia
  19. In the CNS, axons are bundled together to form this.
    tracts
  20. In the PNS, axons cluster together to form this.
    nerves
  21. This is the receiving antenna of the neuron that picks up stimuli/impulses and sends toward the cell body.
    dendrite
  22. What is another name for an axon?
    nerve fiber
  23. This means many bundled fascicles of axons or nerve fibers.
    Nerve
  24. This is a bundle of axons.
    Fascicle
  25. T or F: the smaller diameter a nerve has, the less resistance thee is for impulses.
    False
  26. This CT wraps around a single axon and its myelinsheath
    Endoneuriom
  27. This CT wraps around a group of axons (fascicles)
    Perineurium
  28. This CT wraps around the whole nerve
    Epineurium
  29. This a microtubule of a neuron that functions as a railroad track where motor proteins can transport vessicles with NT, mitochondria.
    Neurotubule
  30. This NT regulates appetite and when we fall asleep
    Seratonin
  31. This NT is involved in emotional responses and addictive behavior
    dopamine
  32. In this type of synaptic connection, the axon terminal sits on a dendrite.
    • Axodendritic synapse
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  33. This type of synaptic connection is when an axon terminal sits on a soma.
    • Axosomatic synapse
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  34. This type of synaptic cleft is when an axon terminal sits on an axon
    • Axoaxonic synapse
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  35. What are the 3 different types of skeletal muscle?
    • 1. skeletal
    • 2. smooth
    • 3. cardia
  36. Image Upload
    What class of neuron is this?
    Unipolar
  37. Image Upload
    What class of neuron is this?
    Bipolar
  38. Image Upload
    What class of neuron is this?
    multipolar
  39. This is when many resynaptic neuron terminals converge onto a SINGLE postsynaptic neuron
    Convergence
  40. This is when ONE presynaptic neuron branches and all branches terminate on different neurons
    Divergence
  41. T or F: there are 4 types of neuroglia cells in the PNS and 2 types in the CNS.
    False: 4 in CNS, 2 in PNS
  42. T or F: neuroglia are non-excitable
    True
  43. T or F: Only oligodendrites do myelination, not schwann cells.
    False: both do myelination
  44. This is the most abundant glial cell in the CNS
    Astrocytes
  45. This type of glial cell is involved in forming tight junctions in the blood-brain barrier
    astrocytes
  46. This type of glial cell converts glucose to lactate and supplies it to the neurons for nourishment.
    Astrocytes
  47. This type of glial cell forms hardened scar tissue, "sclerosis"
    Astrocytes
  48. This tye of glial cell has arm like processes that wraps around a nerve fiber, through myelination.
    Oligodendrites
  49. What is myelination used for?
    Speeds up signal conduction in the nerve fiber
  50. This type of glial cell is a modified epithelial cell that is involved in the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid.
    ependyal cell
  51. This type glial cell has no basement membrane and has cilia on the apical surface which helps circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    ependymal cell
  52. This glial cell is the smallest and least abundant neuroglia in the CNS
    microglial cell
  53. This glial cell engulfs and cleans up debris dead nervous tissue & microorganisms
    microglial cells
  54. Which 4 types of glial cells are in the CNS?
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrites
    • ependymal
    • microglial
  55. which 2 types of glial cells are in the PNS?
    • Schwann
    • satellite
  56. This type of glial cell wraps around nerve fibers in the PNS to produce myelin sheaths and assists in regeneration of damaged fibers.
    Schwann cells
  57. this glial cell surrounds the neuron cell body in ganglia of the PNS
    satellite cells
  58. This process produces a myelin sheath
    Hyelination
  59. These two cells creates myeline sheaths. One in the PNS and the other in the CNS
    • Schwann cells - PNS
    • Oligodendrocytes - CNS
  60. Myelinated axons make up this color of matter
    white matter
  61. The cell bodies plus dendrites make up this color matter
    gray matter
  62. t or f: a fully damaged neuron can be fixed by the schwann cell
    False: schwann cells can only regenerate the damaged axon
Author:
edeleon
ID:
287484
Card Set:
Lecture: chp. 11 & 12
Updated:
2014-11-12 06:16:12
Tags:
anatomy lever systems
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Exam 3
Description:
Lecture notes only
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