Lecture 2

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  1. What does the salivary glands do?
    They secrete saliva into ducts, which empty into the oral cavity
  2. What are the three salivary glands
    Parotid, submandibular and sublingual
  3. Where is the parotid canal located?
    near the ear
  4. What is the parotid glands?
    Duct opens near the second molar, saliva is enzyme
  5. Where is the submandibular glands?
    near mandible
  6. What does the submandibular glands do?
    duct opens on either side of the lingual frenulum. Saliva secretion is both mucus and enzyme
  7. Where is the sublingual glands?
    under the tongue
  8. What does the sublingual glands do?
    Duct opens into the floor of the oral cavity and secretion here is mucus
  9. What are the components of saliva?
    99% water and 1 % solutes (Na, CL-, K) Ph 6.35-6.85
  10. What are the solutes of saliva?
    Mucin, amylase and lysozyme
  11. What is mucin?
    a protein that forms mucus when dissolved in water
  12. what is amylase?
    a starch digesting enzyme
  13. what is lysozyme?
    protects mucus membrane
  14. What are the functions of saliva?
    Cleanses the teeth; dissolves the food via the amylase enzymes; moistens the food and compacts into "bolus"
  15. What is a bolus?
    Food going through the digestive system
  16. What is the pharynx
    contains both skeletal and smooth muscle to move bolus to the esophogus
  17. What is the esophagus
    posterior to the trachea; muscular, collapsible tube about 10" long
  18. What does the lower esophangeal sphincter or cardiac sphincter do?
    tonically contracts until pressure of the bolus causes the sphincter to relax
  19. What are the two walls of the esophagus?
    Circular muscle (inner) and longitudinal muscle (outer)
  20. What is the gastrointestinal tract?
    the GI tract
  21. what are the four layers to the gastrointestinal tract - inside going out
    Mucosa; submucosa; muscularis and serosa
  22. What is the mucosa?
    inner most layer of wall which absorbs, secretes and protects
  23. What are the three parts of the mucosa?
    Columnar epithelium; lamina propria and muscularis mucosa
  24. Describe the columnar epithelium?
    it's in direct contact with the GI tract; stratified in lower part of esophagus and simple in remainder
  25. Describe the lamina propria?
    Contains capillaries and lacteals (lacteals are part of the lymphatic system)
  26. Describe the muscularis mucosa
    smooth muscle, increases digestion and absorption
  27. What layer is the submucosa
    2nd layer of the GI tract
  28. What is a plexus?
    a group of nerves
  29. Describe the submucosa
    dense CT which binds the mucosa to the muscularis; highly vascular, lymph and nerve endings; contains meissner nerve plexus, controls GI secretions and motility
  30. What layer is the muscularis
    3rd layer
  31. What are the two layers of the muscularis layer of the esophagus
    Circular layer is inner (sphincters) and longitudinal layer is outer (breaks down bolus)
  32. Describe the muscularis (externa) layer
    contains the auerbach nerve plexus, controls GI secretions and motility
  33. What is segmentation?
    muscular movement that occurs in the small intestine. The alternating forward and backward movements of segmentation further mix the partially digested food and digestive juices and bring this mixture (called chyme) into contact with the intestinal wall
  34. what is peristalsis
    processing of food through the GI tract
  35. What layer is the serosa in the esophagus
    4th layer
  36. describe the serosa layer
    areolar CT and simple squamous; referred to as the peritoneum; largest serous membrane in the body; contains large folds
  37. What are the names of the large folds in the serosa layer?
    greater omentum; lesser omentum; falciform ligament and mesentery
  38. what is the greater omentum?
    "fatty apron"; goes over greater curvature of stomach
  39. what is the lesser omentum?
    between the liver and stomach
  40. what is the falciform ligament?
    attaches the liver to the diaphragm
  41. what is the mesentery
    attaches the intestines together - in folds of the intestines
  42. what are the modifications of the stomach?
    • mucosa - has large folds Rugae allows for extensibility; contains gastric pits
    • muscularis contains 3rd layer - oblique layer - turns and mixes food
    • serosa - lesser and greater omentum
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Lecture 2
Lecture 2
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