Characteristics of Major Organismal Groups

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chanchan27104
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287493
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Characteristics of Major Organismal Groups
Updated:
2014-10-30 18:24:58
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biology
Folders:
BIO 181 Exam III
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Gettin' organismal up in here
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  1. Three Superkingdoms (Domains)
    • Archaebacteria (Archea
    • Eubacteria
    • Eukaryotes
  2. Four Kingdoms of Eukaryotes
    • Fungi
    • Protists
    • Animals
    • Plants
  3. Archaea
    • Traits in common with both eubacteria and eukaryotes
    • Unique traits
    • Prokaryotes
    • Cell Wall
    • Extremeophiles
  4. Eubacteria
    • Prokaryotes
    • Diverse
    • Cell Wall
    • Autotrophs, parasites, decomposers, mutualists
    • Wide range of environments
    • Commercially important
    • Nucleus containing DNA
    • Membrane-bound organelles
    • Cells larger
  5. Plant Characteristics
    • Multicellular
    • Cell Wall
    • Photosynthetic
    • Terrestrial
    • Evolved onto land from green algae
  6. Types of Plants
    • Bryophytes - mosses
    • Nonseed vascular plants - ferns
    • Seed plants
  7. Gymnosperms
    conifers
  8. Angiosperms
    flowering plants
  9. More Plant Characteristics
    • Cuticle
    • Stomata
    • Vascular TIssue
    • Dominant Stage in life cycle (Gametophyte or Sporophyte)
    • Motile Sperm
    • Pollen 
    • Seeds
    • Flowers and Fruit
  10. Cuticle
    • Waxy outer coating of a plant
    • Prevents water loss
  11. Stomata
    • Controlled openings
    • Gas exchange
  12. Vascular Tissue
    • Internal Conducting Tissue
    • Xylem: water from root to shoot
    • Phloem: sugars from shoot to root
  13. Gametophyte
    • Haploid 
    • E.g. Mosses
  14. Sporophyte
    • Diploid
    • E.g. Ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
  15. Pollen
    • Male gametophyte
    • Contains sperm
  16. Seeds
    Protect and nourish embryo
  17. Flowers and Fruit
    Increase Fertilization and embryo dispersal
  18. Animals
    • Multicellular
    • Heterotrophic
    • Motile
    • Sponges - Porifera
    • Invertebrates
    • Vertebrates
  19. Vertebrate Characteristics
    • Gait
    • Reproduction
    • Amnion 
    • Placenta
    • Skull Types
    • Temperature Regulation
    • Body Covering
    • Excretion
  20. Gait
    • Sprawling - legs to side
    • Erect - legs under body
  21. Amnion
    membrane around embryo
  22. Placenta
    attachment cord for vertebrate embryos
  23. Skull Types
    • Anapsid - no holes
    • Synapsid - one hole
    • Diapsid - two holes
  24. Temperature Regulation
    • Ecotherm - environmental heat
    • Endotherm - internal heat
  25. Invertebrate Characteristics
    • Symmetry
    • Cephalization
    • Coelom
    • Segmentation
    • Locomotion appendages
    • Locomotion
    • Skeleton (rigid or hydrostatic)
  26. Symmetry in Invertebrates
    • Radial - cut in any plane, mirror images
    • Bilateral - only one plane, mirror images
  27. Cephalization
    Concentration of brain and sensory structure at one end
  28. Coelom
    • Body cavity in addition to gut
    • Hydrostatic skeleton
  29. Segmentation
    • Developmental replication of animal into segments
    • Allows for precise movement and specialization
  30. Hydrostatic
    • Skeleton type found in invertebrates that is essentially a bag of water
    • Muscle pressure changes shape
  31. Exoskeleton Characteristics
    • More protective, covering muscles and other soft tissues
    • Produces better leverages for the pull of muscles
    • As animal's size increases, becomes impractically heavy
    • Does not grow once formed; must be molted
  32. Endoskeleton Characteristics
    • Less protective, usually being under the muscles and soft tissues
    • Leverage is worse
    • Can support great size and weight without becoming itself too heavy
    • Grows fairly smoothly and evenly, no molting
  33. Fungi
    • Uni- to "multicellular"
    • Heterotrophic
    • Filamentous
    • Haploid phase dominant (may be dikaryotic)
  34. Hyphae
    Fungal filaments
  35. Mycelium
    mass of hyphae
  36. Dikaryotic
    • 2 nuclei per cell = N + N
    • Results from cells fusing but nuclei remaining separate
  37. Types of Fungi
    • Zygomycetes - bread molds
    • Ascomycetes - cup fungi, yeasts
    • Basidomycetes - mushrooms
  38. Septa
    • crosswalls dividing cells in a hypha
    • Septate or Nonseptate
  39. Fruiting body in a Fungi
    • reproductive structure
    • E.g. mushroom
  40. Sporangium
    Capsule in Fungi (and plants) in which spores are produced (by mitosis or meiosis)
  41. Spore
    Generally single-celled, asexual (mitosis) or sexual (meiosis)
  42. Fungal Symbioses
    • Lichen - fungus and an alga
    • Mycorrhizae - fungus and a plant (on roots_
  43. Fungal Products
    • Food
    • Drugs
    • Alcohol
  44. Protista
    • Extremely diverse
    • Uni- to multicellular
    • Can have a cell wall, some don't
    • Can be Autotrophic or heterotrophic
    • E.g. Protozoans, Algae
  45. Protistan Products
    • Sushi
    • Food Thickeners
    • Diatomaceous earth

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