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Blood is a viscous substance composed of a ___ and ____.
- Cellular portion
- Fluid portion
More than 99% of the cellular portion of blood is made up of what?
Low number of erythrocytes is called what?
Also known as packed cell volume. Tells you the degree of anemia a animal may have. Total red blood cell volume versus plasma (fluid).
If dog has PCV of 42 what does this tell you in regard to RBC and fluid?
- 42% is amount of RBC, 58% is fluid (plasma)
- Normal PCV.
Hormone released by interstitial cells of the kidneys. Hormone is involved in erythropoiesis, which is production of RBC
Production of RBC that occurs in bone marrow. Requires minerals such as copper, cobalt, iron, high quality proteins, 10 essential amino acids, water, water soluble vitamins, and erythropoietin.
Hot-blooded horse PCV
With anemia there is a _ PCV
With dehydration there is a _ PCV
With trauma there is a _ PCV
Decreased PCV and blood loss
With shock there is a _ PCV
Dog leukocyte count
Cat leukocyte count
Cow leukocyte count
Horse leukocyte count
Difference between plasma and serum
Plasma is in circulating blood and contains water, electrolytes, and clotting factors. Serum does not contain clotting factors.
Variation is size of RBC
Variation in shapes of RBC
Variation of color in RBC
RBC found in bone marrow
Howell Jolly Body
Reminant of nucleus
Middle of RBC not alot of color, whitish color
- 1) Large
- 2) Blueish cytoplasm
- 3) Vacuoles
- 4) Indented nucleus
Projections around edges of RBC
Tear drop shaped RBC
Cookie shaped RBC
RBC split open, fragments of RBC
Round balls, smaller, more dense RBC
Mouth like shaped central paller
4 essential materials for RBC production
- 1) Minerals (iron, copper, cobalt)
- 2) Erythropoietin
- 3) Water soluble vitamins
- 4) High quality proteins
Primary function of erythrocytes
Carry oxygen and hemaglobin throughout the body via blood
Method by which erythrocytes do their job
Hemaglobin carries oxygen and erythrocytes carry hemaglobin and oxygen through the body to all the cells via blood. Cellular respiration occurs with the intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide and water. If not undergoing cellular respiration the cell dies
When to give dog a blood transfusion
If PCV 12% or less
When to give cat blood transfusion
PCV 10% or less
- 1) 72 hrs or more
- 2) Pale mucous membranes
- 3) Edema
- 4) Heart murmur
- 1) 72 hrs or less
- 2) Icterus
- 3) Hemaglobinurea
- 4) Elevated temperature
Sweet clover poisoning of cattle
Once sweet clover plant has been trampled on or bruised by a frost then chemical reaction releases dicoumarol. Once ingested by the cow the cow becomes poisoned and begins to bleed from every orifice causing anemia. Regenerative anemia.
3 signs seen on blood smear of regenerative anemia
- 1) Anisocytosis
- 2) Polychromasia
- 3) Reticulocytes
- Disease spread by vet, vet tech, or medicine.
- EX: Anaplamosis or babesia
Only occurs with canines, the british call it "tropical canine pancytopenia. Signs of this disease include elevated temperature (104-106), limb edema, epistaxis, petechia and a low pcv. Should be the first rule out with a fever above 104.
Signs of lead poisoning in dog
Pain in abdomen, gastrointestinal and colic like symptoms, known as canine plumbism
Unusual about hemogram with lead poisoning
- Reticulocytes and target cells seen
- Normal to slightly low pack cell volume
Naphthalene/ moth ball poisoning
Animal plays with moth ball and then grooms itself or ingest moth ball. Symptoms include icterus, anorexia, hemoglobinurea, nausea, and hemolysis of most RBC
Why do horses die from snakebite?
Snake bites horse around the neck and inflammatory response causes suffocation. Can also die from tetanus.
Erythrocyte appearance in an auto-immune hemolytic anemia
Virus with no cure or vaccine. Spread by biting flies or iatrogenically by dirty needles, tattoo equipment, etc. and only takes one drop of blood to become infected. Three stages are chronic, sub-acute and acute. With chronic stage horse appears normal but will experience a diphasic curve in regards to temperature with it spiking then return to normal and so on. Next stage is sub-acute and a horse can go back and forth between chronic and sub-acute due to stressors such as nutritional state, parasites, or hauling and working. In this stage the horses RBC count goes from 8 million to 4 million. In the acute stage the horse will have a loss of appetite and will soon after die. Coggins test must be done to determine if negative or positive. If positive horse should be euthanized to prevent animal from becoming a reservoir. A positive horse can be submitted to a research facility or sent to a EIA sanctuary and be branded with a 75-A on their left shoulder and be quarantined for life.
Unknown cause of disease
Once a sweet clover plant has been trampled on or bruised by a frost a chemical reaction occurs and releases the chemical dicoumarol
Treatment given to a horse after a snakebite
- 1) Flush the wound with hydrotherapy
- 2) Give horse tetanus antitoxoid and tetanus bacterin
- 3) Give anti-inflammatory/steroids if bitten on neck
How do puppies and cows get lead poisoning
Puppies: By chewing on toe strips, shingles, tile, linoleum, chewing on childrens toys painted with bright colored lead paints
Cows: Licking fences/barns painted with lead paints, licking discarded car batteries
- Blockage of blood flow which causes an anerobic environment and cellular respiration cannot occur and cells die due to lack of oxygen. There are two types, dry and moist.
- Dry gangrene: No anerobic bacteria, no deadly exotoxins. Macrophages cause blockage of blood flow and cells die due to lack of oxygen which causes necrosis of the tissue. EX: frost bite
- Moist gangrene: Has anerobic bacteria which produced deadly exotoxins that spread throughout the animal and result in death. Treatment is amputation.
Onion toxicity appearance of RBC
Heinz bodies are seen and resemble the shape of a ketchup bottle. Animal gets toxicity by being given to many onions from table scraps.
Only found in cats and some believe all cats have the disease and a stressor such as going to the vet, spay/neuter, queening, addition or subtraction of family member can cause the onset of the disease. Caused by a blood parasite, and the RBC will have peripheral bumps on the outside and appear like a signet ring. Animal will have low levels of hemaglobin, low PCV of 15 or less, and hemolysis of some RBC. Must be given antibiotics or will die.
A non regenerative anemia most often seen in geriatric patients. Few reticulocytes are seen. Once the kidneys have been damaged the production of erythropoietin decreases and so does erythropoiesis. Kidney damage cannot be reversed, can only give animal supportive fluid and high quality proteins. Want to keep animal hydrated.
Hypothyroidism in dogs
Thyroid prodcues T3, Triiodothyroxine, and T4, Thyroxine, which regulate metabolism. If thyroid isnt producing enough of these hormones the animal will exhibit lethargy, weight gain to the point of obesity, distinctive odor (rancid fat), dry skin, dandruff, greasy hair, personality changes and can lead to infertility issues. If becomes chronic animal will have symmetrical bilateral alopecia.
WBC count procedure
- 1) Puncture top of diaphragm with protective shield that covers the pipette
- 2) Gently invert purple top tube of whole blood to ensure no clotting
- 3) Remove protective shield from pipette and insert into purple top tube obtaining a sample of whole blood.
- 4) Wipe excess blood from outside of pipette using kimwipe
- 5) Gently squeeze reservoir of diluent causing pressure and insert pipette with finger over the end
- 6) Once pipette is inserted gently release pressure and finger and squeeze reservoir to expel blood from the pipette
- 7) Place finger over end of pipette and gently invert a few times to ensure proper mixing
- 8) Allow to sit for 12-14 mins
- 9) Once time has elapsed, invert pipette so it now becomes a dropper
- 10) Expel first 3-4 drops of sample as waste
- 11) Carefully insert solution onto the hemacytometer of the Neubauer grid without going into the gutters
- 12) Read amount of white blood cells of each 9 large squares under low light and low power of 10 X on microscope
- 13) Count total WBC add 10% then multiply by 100 to get total WBC count.
Immunoglobulin that is specific for the antigen that induced its formation.
Blood movement from peripheral circulation to internal circulation. Fluid portion of blood moves more quickly so will have an increased PCV
Banded neutrophil normal
Segmented neutrophil normal
Red granules in cytoplasma, in feline hot pink granules
Cause of spherocyte apperance
Condensing of own RBC caused by own antibodies on the outside of the RBC
Also known as cushing syndrome and is production of too much cortisol by the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is found in the plasma. Animal will experience polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, symmetrical bilateral alopecia, and can cause fertility issues. 3 causes are too much production of adrenocorticotropic hormone by the pituitary gland, functional tumor on the adrenal cortex, and iatrogenically by giving to much corticosteroids. Test for disease by testing levels of cortisol in the plasma. Can treat by surgically removing the tumor, or giving dexamethasone.
Copper poisoning in cattle
Cattle consume to much copper and becomes poisoned. Copper is found in the soil and in hay, in Texas it also comes from pollution from munition plants. Over time cattle ingests a lot of copper and a stressor such as hauling, working or a cattle drive cause the liver to dump stored copper into the body and poisoning cow. Condition appears acute to farmer but is actually chronic
- 1) Invert purple top tube to ensure no clotting
- 2) Get 2 hematocrit tubes
- 3) Fill tubes with 75-80% whole blood
- 4) Wipe off excess blood on outside on tube using kim wipe
- 5) Plug end of tubes with clay
- 6) Insert tubes into centrifuge across from each other to balance and with the clay facing outward.
- 7) Secure silver lid by screwing on tight and close centrifuge lid
- 8) Set centrifuge to micohematocrit setting for 3 minutes
- 9) Once done remove tubes and place onto hematocrit reader chart
- 10) To read place top of plug on bottom line and top of plasma on top line, top of the RBC tells you your PCV
- 11) Both tubes must be within 2% of eachother or redo
- 12) Disregard tubes in sharps container
Also known as Addisons disease and can be caused iatrogenically by being given to much corticosteroids (aftermath of cushings syndrome). Causes negative feedback, if you dont use it you lose it and the adrenal gland no longer produces cortisol. Symptoms include GI issues, nausea, if worsens animal will exhibit fainting and depression. If worsened farther animal will collapse due to blood pressure falling, hypovolemic shock. If animal is not given IV fluids immediately they will die. Animal will also have an elevated blood urea nitrogen. To test for disease test potassium sodium ratio. Sodium normal is 145 and potassium is 4. 36 is normal ratio, if under 25 its considered addisons.
RBC maturation slide
- Howell Jolly Body
- Normal red blood cell
- Absolute increase in number of erythrocytes
- Treatment is blood letting
- Genetic in humans
- Total number of erythrocytes remains the same but increase PCV due to lack of fluid
- Caused by dehydration and shock
- PCV 55-80
- RBC mass remains the same
- If not treated will lead to sludge blood and animal will stroke out
3 things that cause dehydration
- Mean corpuscular hemaglobin concentration
- Normal 33%
- Sheep, goat, pig 32%
- Cattle 30%
- Increased number of RBC but only for a short period of time
- Causes: Fight or flight response, RBC coming from spleen, taking dog to vet clinic, by drawing blood
- PCV 50-60
Secondary Polycythemia Vera
- Caused by high altitude- not enough O2
- COPD- Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease
- Mean corpuscular volume
- Volume of the average RBC
- Dog: 70 Fl
- Cat: 45 Fl
- Cattle: 50 Fl
- Draft horse: 44 Fl
- Thoroughbred: 42 Fl
- More reticulocytes seen= larger MCV
- Less reticulocytes seen= lower MCV
Increase in WBC
Decrease in WBC
Causes for increased WBC
- Bacterial infection
- Fungal infection
- Exercise, excitement
Causes for decreased WBC
- Phagocytic cells that gobble foreign invader antigen
- Not capable of mitotic division
- Contain hydrolytic enzymes: lysozyme, phagocytin
- Bands and Segmented neutrophils
Shift to the left
More bands than normal and a decrease in number of segs
Degenerative left shift
More bands than segs
Unsuccessful segmented neutrophils (dead cells)
- Develop in lymph nodes/tissues
- Capable of mitotic division
- 2 types:
- T-lymphocytes: Thymus dependent, formed first in fetus
- B-lymphocytes: Release anti-bodies
T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocyte job
Ability to recognize foreign antigens, send out chemical message to B-lymphocytes which release antibodies
- In blood
- In tissues called macrophages
- Functions: Phagocytic, aid in antibody production, build wall of potentially affected areas, and secrete hydrolytic enzymes
How do monocytes and lymphocytes work together
Send out lasso and grabs potential antigen and T-lymphocyte will analyze to determine if foreign or not and if non-self sends chemical message to B-lymphocytes to release antibodies
- Increased levels with skin problems, parasites, and allergies
- Decrease with steroids
May contain histamine and heparin
- Carry clotting factors
- Physically plug up tears in blood vessels
Big nucleus "Mother ship"