Clin Path 1

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  1. Blood is a viscous substance composed of a ___ and ____.
    • Cellular portion
    • Fluid portion
  2. More than 99% of the cellular portion of blood is made up of what?
  3. Low number of erythrocytes is called what?
  4. Describe hematocrit
    Also known as packed cell volume. Tells you the degree of anemia a animal may have. Total red blood cell volume versus plasma (fluid).
  5. If dog has PCV of 42 what does this tell you in regard to RBC and fluid?
    • 42% is amount of RBC, 58% is fluid (plasma)
    • Normal PCV.
  6. Describe erythropoietin
    Hormone released by interstitial cells of the kidneys. Hormone is involved in erythropoiesis, which is production of RBC
  7. Define erythropoiesis
    Production of RBC that occurs in bone marrow. Requires minerals such as copper, cobalt, iron, high quality proteins, 10 essential amino acids, water, water soluble vitamins, and erythropoietin.
  8. Dog normal PCV
  9. Cow PCV
  10. Cat PCV
  11. Draft horse PCV
  12. Hot-blooded horse PCV
  13. With anemia there is a _ PCV
  14. With dehydration there is a _ PCV
  15. With trauma there is a _ PCV
    Decreased PCV and blood loss
  16. With shock there is a _ PCV
  17. Dog leukocyte count
  18. Cat leukocyte count
  19. Cow leukocyte count
  20. Horse leukocyte count
  21. Sodium
  22. Chloride
  23. Difference between plasma and serum
    Plasma  is in circulating blood and contains water, electrolytes, and clotting factors. Serum does not contain clotting factors.
  24. Anisocytosis
    Variation is size of RBC
  25. Poikilocytosis
    Variation in shapes of RBC
  26. Polychromasia
    Variation of color in RBC
  27. Reticulocytes
    Immature erythrocytes
  28. Rubriblast
    RBC found in bone marrow
  29. Metarubricyte
    Nucleated RBC
  30. Howell Jolly Body
    Reminant of nucleus
  31. Central paller
    Middle of RBC not alot of color, whitish color
  32. Monocyte characteristics
    • 1) Large
    • 2) Blueish cytoplasm 
    • 3) Vacuoles 
    • 4) Indented nucleus
  33. Crenation
    Projections around edges of RBC
  34. Dacrocytes
    Tear drop shaped RBC
  35. Keratocyte
    Cookie shaped RBC
  36. Schistocyte
    RBC split open, fragments of RBC
  37. Spherocytes
    Round balls, smaller, more dense RBC
  38. Stomatocyte
    Mouth like shaped central paller
  39. 4 essential materials for RBC production
    • 1) Minerals (iron, copper, cobalt)
    • 2) Erythropoietin 
    • 3) Water soluble vitamins
    • 4) High quality proteins
  40. Primary function of erythrocytes
    Carry oxygen and hemaglobin throughout the body via blood
  41. Method by which erythrocytes do their job
    Hemaglobin carries oxygen and erythrocytes carry hemaglobin and oxygen through the body to all the cells via blood. Cellular respiration occurs with the intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide and water. If not undergoing cellular respiration the cell dies
  42. When to give dog a blood transfusion
    If PCV 12% or less
  43. When to give cat blood transfusion
    PCV 10% or less
  44. Chronic anemia
    • 1) 72 hrs or more
    • 2) Pale mucous membranes
    • 3) Edema
    • 4) Heart murmur
  45. Acute anemia
    • 1) 72 hrs or less 
    • 2) Icterus
    • 3) Hemaglobinurea
    • 4) Elevated temperature
  46. Sweet clover poisoning of cattle
    Once sweet clover plant has been trampled on or bruised by a frost then chemical reaction releases dicoumarol. Once ingested by the cow the cow becomes poisoned and begins to bleed from every orifice causing anemia. Regenerative anemia.
  47. 3 signs seen on blood smear of regenerative anemia
    • 1) Anisocytosis
    • 2) Polychromasia
    • 3) Reticulocytes
  48. Iatrogenic
    • Disease spread by vet, vet tech, or medicine. 
    • EX: Anaplamosis or babesia
  49. Ehrlichia canis
    Only occurs with canines, the british call it "tropical canine pancytopenia. Signs of this disease include elevated temperature (104-106), limb edema, epistaxis, petechia and a low pcv. Should be the first rule out with a fever above 104.
  50. Signs of lead poisoning in dog
    Pain in abdomen, gastrointestinal and colic like symptoms, known as canine plumbism
  51. Unusual about hemogram with lead poisoning
    • Reticulocytes and target cells seen
    • Normal to slightly low pack cell volume
  52. Naphthalene/ moth ball poisoning
    Animal plays with moth ball and then grooms itself or ingest moth ball. Symptoms include icterus, anorexia, hemoglobinurea, nausea, and hemolysis of most RBC
  53. Why do horses die from snakebite?
    Snake bites horse around the neck and inflammatory response causes suffocation. Can also die from tetanus.
  54. Erythrocyte appearance in an auto-immune hemolytic anemia
    • Reticulocytes
    • Spherocytes
    • Metarubricytes
  55. EIA
    Virus with no cure or vaccine. Spread by biting flies or iatrogenically by dirty needles, tattoo equipment, etc. and only takes one drop of blood to become infected. Three stages are chronic, sub-acute and acute. With chronic stage horse appears normal but will experience a diphasic curve in regards to temperature with it spiking then return to normal and so on. Next stage is sub-acute and a horse can go back and forth between chronic and sub-acute due to stressors such as nutritional state, parasites, or hauling and working. In this stage the horses RBC count goes from 8 million to 4 million. In the acute stage the horse will have a loss of appetite and will soon after die. Coggins test must be done to determine if negative or positive. If positive horse should be euthanized to prevent animal from becoming a reservoir. A positive horse can be submitted to a research facility or sent to a EIA sanctuary and be branded with a 75-A on their left shoulder and be quarantined for life.
  56. Idiopathic
    Unknown cause of disease
  57. Dicoumarol
    Once a sweet clover plant has been trampled on or bruised by a frost a chemical reaction occurs and releases the chemical dicoumarol
  58. Treatment given to a horse after a snakebite
    • 1) Flush the wound with hydrotherapy 
    • 2) Give horse tetanus antitoxoid and tetanus bacterin
    • 3) Give anti-inflammatory/steroids if bitten on neck
  59. How do puppies and cows get lead poisoning
    Puppies: By chewing on toe strips, shingles, tile, linoleum, chewing on childrens toys painted with bright colored lead paints 

    Cows: Licking fences/barns painted with lead paints, licking discarded car batteries
  60. Gangrene
    • Blockage of blood flow which causes an anerobic environment and cellular respiration cannot occur and cells die due to lack of oxygen. There are two types, dry and moist.
    • Dry gangrene: No anerobic bacteria, no deadly exotoxins. Macrophages cause blockage of blood flow and cells die due to lack of oxygen which causes necrosis of the tissue. EX: frost bite 
    • Moist gangrene: Has anerobic bacteria which produced deadly exotoxins that spread throughout the animal and result in death. Treatment is amputation.
  61. Onion toxicity appearance of RBC
    Heinz bodies are seen and resemble the shape of a ketchup bottle. Animal gets toxicity by being given to many onions from table scraps.
  62. Hemobartonella felis
    Only found in cats and some believe all cats have the disease and a stressor such as going to the vet, spay/neuter, queening, addition or subtraction of family member can cause the onset of the disease. Caused by a blood parasite, and the RBC will have peripheral bumps on the outside and appear like a signet ring. Animal will have low levels of hemaglobin, low PCV of 15 or less, and hemolysis of some RBC. Must be given antibiotics or will die.
  63. CIN
    A non regenerative anemia most often seen in geriatric patients. Few reticulocytes are seen. Once the kidneys have been damaged the production of erythropoietin decreases and so does erythropoiesis. Kidney damage cannot be reversed, can only give animal supportive fluid and high quality proteins. Want to keep animal hydrated.
  64. Hypothyroidism in dogs
    Thyroid prodcues T3, Triiodothyroxine, and T4, Thyroxine, which regulate metabolism. If thyroid isnt producing enough of these hormones the animal will exhibit lethargy, weight gain to the point of obesity, distinctive odor (rancid fat), dry skin, dandruff, greasy hair, personality changes and can lead to infertility issues. If becomes chronic animal will have symmetrical bilateral alopecia.
  65. WBC count procedure
    • 1) Puncture top of diaphragm with protective shield that covers the pipette
    • 2) Gently invert purple top tube of whole blood to ensure no clotting
    • 3) Remove protective shield from pipette and insert into purple top tube obtaining a sample of whole blood. 
    • 4) Wipe excess blood from outside of pipette using kimwipe 
    • 5) Gently squeeze reservoir of diluent causing pressure and insert pipette with finger over the end
    • 6) Once pipette is inserted gently release pressure and finger and squeeze reservoir to expel blood from the pipette
    • 7) Place finger over end of pipette and gently invert a few times to ensure proper mixing 
    • 8) Allow to sit for 12-14 mins
    • 9) Once time has elapsed, invert pipette so it now becomes a dropper
    • 10) Expel first 3-4 drops of sample as waste
    • 11) Carefully insert solution onto the hemacytometer of the Neubauer grid without going into the gutters
    • 12) Read amount of white blood cells of each 9 large squares under low light and low power of 10 X on microscope
    • 13) Count total WBC add 10% then multiply by 100 to get total WBC count.
  66. Antigen
    Foreign protein
  67. Antibody
    Immunoglobulin that is specific for the antigen that induced its formation.
  68. Shock
    Blood movement from peripheral circulation to internal circulation. Fluid portion of blood moves more quickly so will have an increased PCV
  69. Banded neutrophil normal
  70. Segmented neutrophil normal
  71. Lymphocyte normal
  72. Monocyte normal
  73. Eosinophil normal
  74. Basophil normal
  75. Eosinophil apperance
    Red granules in cytoplasma, in feline hot pink granules
  76. Cause of spherocyte apperance
    Condensing of own RBC caused by own antibodies on the outside of the RBC
  77. Hyperadrenocorticism
    Also known as cushing syndrome and is production of too much cortisol by the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is found in the plasma. Animal will experience polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, symmetrical bilateral alopecia, and can cause fertility issues. 3 causes are too much production of adrenocorticotropic hormone by the pituitary gland, functional tumor on the adrenal cortex, and iatrogenically by giving to much corticosteroids. Test for disease by testing levels of cortisol in the plasma. Can treat by surgically removing the tumor, or giving dexamethasone.
  78. Copper poisoning in cattle
    Cattle consume to much copper and becomes poisoned. Copper is found in the soil and in hay, in Texas it also comes from pollution from munition plants. Over time cattle ingests a lot of copper and a stressor such as hauling, working or a cattle drive cause the liver to dump stored copper into the body and poisoning cow. Condition appears acute to farmer but is actually chronic
  79. PCV procedure
    • 1) Invert purple top tube to ensure no clotting
    • 2) Get 2 hematocrit tubes
    • 3) Fill tubes with 75-80% whole blood
    • 4) Wipe off excess blood on outside on tube using kim wipe
    • 5) Plug end of tubes with clay
    • 6) Insert tubes into centrifuge across from each other to balance and with the clay facing outward.
    • 7) Secure silver lid by screwing on tight and close centrifuge lid
    • 8) Set centrifuge to micohematocrit setting for 3 minutes
    • 9) Once done remove tubes and place onto hematocrit reader chart
    • 10) To read place top of plug on bottom line and top of plasma on top line, top of the RBC tells you your PCV
    • 11) Both tubes must be within 2% of eachother or redo
    • 12) Disregard tubes in sharps container
  80. Hypoadrenocorticism
    Also known as Addisons disease and can be caused iatrogenically by being given to much corticosteroids (aftermath of cushings syndrome). Causes negative feedback, if you dont use it you lose it and the adrenal gland no longer produces cortisol. Symptoms include GI issues, nausea, if worsens animal will exhibit fainting and depression. If worsened farther animal will collapse due to blood pressure falling, hypovolemic shock. If animal is not given IV fluids immediately they will die. Animal will also have an elevated blood urea nitrogen. To test for disease test potassium sodium ratio. Sodium normal is 145 and potassium is 4. 36 is normal ratio, if under 25 its considered addisons.
  81. RBC maturation slide
    • Rubriblast 
    • Prorubricyte
    • Rubricyte 
    • Metarubricyte
    • Howell Jolly Body
    • Reticulocyte 
    • Normal red blood cell
  82. Polycythemia vera
    • Absolute increase in number of erythrocytes 
    • Treatment is blood letting 
    • Genetic in humans
  83. Relative polycythemia
    • Total number of erythrocytes remains the same but increase PCV due to lack of fluid
    • Caused by dehydration and shock
    • PCV 55-80
    • RBC mass remains the same 
    • If not treated will lead to sludge blood and animal will stroke out
  84. 3 things that cause dehydration
    • Diarrhea 
    • Shock
    • Vomiting
  85. 4 signs of inflammation
    • Heat
    • Redness
    • Swelling
    • Pain
  86. MCHC
    • Mean corpuscular hemaglobin concentration
    • Normal 33%
    • Sheep, goat, pig 32%
    • Cattle 30%
  87. Transient polycythemia
    • Increased number of RBC but only for a short period of time 
    • Causes: Fight or flight response, RBC coming from spleen, taking dog to vet clinic, by drawing blood
    • PCV 50-60
  88. Secondary Polycythemia Vera
    • Caused by high altitude- not enough O2
    • COPD- Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease
  89. MCV
    • Mean corpuscular volume
    • Volume of the average RBC
    • Dog: 70 Fl
    • Cat: 45 Fl
    • Cattle: 50 Fl
    • Draft horse: 44 Fl
    • Thoroughbred: 42 Fl
    • More reticulocytes seen= larger MCV
    • Less reticulocytes seen= lower MCV
  90. Increase in WBC
  91. Decrease in WBC
  92. Causes for increased WBC
    • Bacterial infection
    • Fungal infection
    • Stress 
    • Exercise, excitement
  93. Causes for decreased WBC
  94. Neutrophils
    • Phagocytic cells that gobble foreign invader antigen 
    • Not capable of mitotic division
    • Contain hydrolytic enzymes: lysozyme, phagocytin
    • Bands and Segmented neutrophils
  95. Shift to the left
    More bands than normal and a decrease in number of segs
  96. Degenerative left shift
    More bands than segs
  97. Pus
    Unsuccessful segmented neutrophils (dead cells)
  98. Lymphocytes
    • Develop in lymph nodes/tissues
    • Capable of mitotic division 
    • 2 types: 
    • T-lymphocytes: Thymus dependent, formed first in fetus
    • B-lymphocytes: Release anti-bodies
  99. T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocyte job
    Ability to recognize foreign antigens, send out chemical message to B-lymphocytes which release antibodies
  100. Monocytes
    • In blood
    • In tissues called macrophages
    • Functions: Phagocytic, aid in antibody production, build wall of potentially affected areas, and secrete hydrolytic enzymes
  101. How do monocytes and lymphocytes work together
    Send out lasso and grabs potential antigen and T-lymphocyte will analyze to determine if foreign or not and if non-self sends chemical message to  B-lymphocytes to release antibodies
  102. Lines of defense
    • Skin
    • Neutrophils
    • Monocytes
  103. Eosinophils
    • Increased levels with skin problems, parasites, and allergies
    • Decrease with steroids
  104. Basophils
    May contain histamine and heparin
  105. Platelet functions
    • Carry clotting factors
    • Physically plug up tears in blood vessels
  106. Megakaryocyte
    Big nucleus "Mother ship"
Card Set
Clin Path 1
Clin Path basic information
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