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How many pairs of ribs does a horse have?
Why does the lumbar area apear short?
The thoracic cage is long.
The ribs progressively slope caudally producing what?
A laterally compressed chest.
Horse's intercostal spaces are wide or thin?
Wide (ribs are slender).
The sternum tilts?
The caudal angle of
the scapula is at the level of the ___ rib?
The vertex of the diaphram is at?
The lower part of the 6th intercostal space or 7th rib.
1) The right crus attaches to?
2) The left?
3) The sternal?
- 1) the first four or five lumbar vertebrae (via the ventral longitudinal ligament)
- 2) the first two lumbar vertebrae
- 3) xiphoid cartilage
Why is the costodiaphragmatic line of pleural reflection of clinical importance?
- The diaphragm attaches to the costal wall, caudal to this line; and the
- peritoneal cavity can be punctured behind this line without entering the
- pleural cavity.
What is the costodiaphragmatic recess? Why is it unique in the horse?
- The costodiaphragmatic recess is the narrow space bordered immediately by the
- diaphragm and thoracic wall. In the horse is within the thoracic cage, narrow
- and extensive.
True or False? The mediastinum is poorly supported by subpleural connective tissue?
Which lung lobe is larger?
Where can the cardiac notches be found in the left and right lung lobes?
- -3rd to 6th intercostal spaces (left lung).
- -3rd to 4th intercostal spaces (right lung).
Which coronary artery is dominant?
The great coronary vein, the major vein of the heart, opens into the right atrium through what?
the orifice of the coronary sinus.
Do horses have a left azygus vein?
No,only on the right.
What is the apex beat and when is it normally felt?
Point of maximum auscultation. Not normally felt on palpation in the horse -except in pathological circumstances.
Where do pulmonary lymph nodes usually drain?
Into the tracheobronchial nodes (along the trachea and primary bronchi).
Where do you perform a pericardiocentesis?
- -4th intercostalspace
- -level of costochondraljunction
What is the caudal half of the jugular vein concealed by?
thick cutaneous colli muscle.