the genetic material of a sperm and egg (ovum) unite to form a zygote (created 46 chromosome)
What is an ovum?
sperm and egg
What is a zygote?
What is infertility?
the inability to conceive with one year of effort
What is Artificial insemination?
injecting sperm, either from a woman’s partner from a donor, into her uterus
What is in vitro fertilization?
several eggs are removed from a woman’s ovary and manually combined with sperm in a laboratory dish before being returned to a woman’s uterus in hopes that one egg will implant on the wall of the uterus
What are the 3 periods of the prenatal stage?(Part of 1st essay)
1. Germinal Period
2. Embryonic Period
3. Fetal Period
What happens in the Germinal period?(Part of 1st essay)
What is blastocyst (implantation)? (Part of 1st essay)
A hollow ball of about 150 cells that is the size of a pin
Egg attaches to the lining of the uterus
Starts around the sixth day and ends the 14th day
What is a miscarriage? (Part of first essay)
A short lived pregnancy
How long is the Germinal Period? (Part of 1st essay)
First two weeks of pregnancy
How long is the Embryonic stage? (Part of 1st essay)
3-8 weeks (most critical time in pregnancy)
What happens in the Embryonic Stage?
4. Cells of Blastocyst
5. Brain, heart all other body parts formed
What is organogenesis?
Every major organ takes shape, in at least a primitive form
What is amnion?
The outer layer of the blastocyst
A watertight membrane that fills with fluid that cushions and protects the embryo
What is the chorion?
A membrane that surrounds the amnion and attaches root-like extensions called villi to the uterine liking to gather nourishment for the embryo
Eventually becomes the lining of the placenta
What is the placenta?
A tissue fed by blood vessels from the mother and connected to the embryo by the umbilical cord
Embryo receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother
What is the placental barrier?
A membrane that allows small molecules to pass through, but it prevents the large blood cells of embryo and mother from mingling
Protects the child from harmful substances
What is the ectoderm? (Part of 1st essay)
Cells from the blastocyst that will eventually evolve into tissue for the central nervous system
What is the mesoderm? (Part of 1st essay)
Cells from the blastocyst that will eventually evolve into tissue for the muscle tissue, cartilage, bone, heart
What is the endoderm? (Part of the 1st essay)
Cells from the blastocyst that will eventually evolve into tissue for the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and bladder
What is spina bifida? (Part of the 1st essay)
This could happen during the embryonic stage when the neural tube fails to fully closed
When part of the spinal cord is not fully encased in the protective coverage of the spinal cord
What is anencphaly?
Can happen during the embryonic stage when the top of the neural tube fails to close
A lethal defect in which the main portion of the brain above the brain stem fails to develop
What is the role of testosterone in this stage? (Part of the 1st essay)
The primary male sex hormone that stimulates the development of a male internal reproductive system
If absent of this hormone the embryo develops internal reproductive system of a female
How long is the fetal period? (Part of the 1st essay)
What happens in the fetal period? (Part of the 1st essay)
Changes in each trimester
Age of viability
What is proliferation?(Part of the 1st essay)
An intense period of cell growth originating from stem cells undergoing rapid cell division
What is migration?(Part of the 1st essay)
Cells move or travel to their intended location in the nervous system. Chemical signals may serve as a neural GPS to guide them
What is differentiate? (Part of the 1st essay)
Cells change or transform into a particular type based on where they land following their migration
Begin to communicate with surrounding neurons
What is the age of viability? (Part of the First essay)
23 weeks only 25% can survive, when survival outside the uterus is possible, if all of the major areas such as heart and brain are functioning correctly
What are teratogens? (Part of the 2nd essay)
Any disease, drug or other environmental agent that can harm a developing fetus
Coins monster behaviors, can create a very disordered human being physical or internal (can affect any stage but mostly in the embryonic and fetal stage)
What are the 3 types of teratogens? (Part of the 2nd essay)
3. Environmental agents
How does the teratogen effect during the critical period? (Part of the second essay)
The effects of a teratogenic agent are worst during the critical period when an organ system grows more rapidly
What does dosage and duration have an effect with teratogens? (Part of the 2nd essay)
The greater the level of exposure and the longer the exposure to a teratogen, the more likely it is that serious damage will occur
What is the effect of the genetic makeup have on the teratogens?
susceptibility to harm is influenced by the unborn child's and the mother's makeup.
Some fetuses are more (or less) resistant to teratogens
What are some drugs? (Part of the 2nd essay)
What is thalidomide? (Part of 2nd essay)
Can effect facial features and the limbs
What is fetal alcohol syndrome? (Part of 2nd essay)?
people are smaller, distinct facial features, intellectually disabled, infects migration of the neurons (Severe)
What is fetal alcohol effects? (Part of the 2nd essay)?
Might have some of the features in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (less severe)
The 4 affects of cocaine? (Part of the 2nd essay)
Low birth rate
The 3 affects of Marijuana? (Part of the 2nd essay)
1. Low birth rate
2. Respiratory issues
3. Emotional issues
What is SIDS? (Part of the 2nd essay)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
What are 4 diseases? (Part of the 2nd essay)
What is Rubella? (Part of the 2nd essay)
What are the ways AIDS can be passed down? (Part of the second essay)
Prenatally- passing through the placenta
Medication given to prevent the baby from getting Aids
Perinatal- Anytime surrounding when the baby is coming out
Postnatal- Breast feeding
What does Syphilis cause? (Part of 2nd essay)
What are some environmental agents? (Part of essay 2)
What is the prenatal environment?
the environment surrounding birth
What is a perinatologist?
a fetal specialist
Recommended for high-risk pregnancies associated with delivery complications
What is a midwife?
view pregnancy and delivery as natural life events
What is a doula?
An individual trained to provide continuous physical and emotional support throughout the child birth process
What is anoxia?
tangled umbilici cord
Baby being born feet first
What is cerebral palsy?
A neurological disability primarily associated with difficulty controlling muscle movements
What is Cesarean Section?
a surgical procedure in which an incision is made int he mother's abdomen and uterus so that the baby can be removed
What is postpartum depression?
an episode of clinical depression lasting 2 or more weeks
What is oxytocin?
A hormone released by the pituitary gland that can initiate and speed up contractions
What is couvade? (Father's experience with pregnancy)
when the males experience some of the same symptoms as the pregnant wife
What is neonatal environment?
the events of the first month and how parents might optimize the development of young infants
What is surfactant?
a substance that prevents the air sacs of the lungs from sticking together and therefore aids breathing
What is kangaroo care?
resting on a parents chest helps maintain body temperature, heart rate, and oxygen levels in the blood
What is resilience?
their ability to rebound from early disadvantages and to respond to environment influences throughout their lives rather than only during so called critical periods
What is ciliac disease?
an inherited digestive problem in which gluten triggers an immune response that leads to inflammation and damages small intestines
What is catch up growth?
after a period of malnutrition or illness reflects the body’s struggle to get back real quick to where it is supposed to be
What is endocrine glands?
A hormonal system of glands, secrete different hormones and they secrete those hormones into the bloodstream
What is pituitary glands?
master of the endocrine
triggers the release of hormones from all other endocrine glands by sending hormonal messages to those glands
located in the brain
What is thyroid gland?
has a role in physical growth and metabolism
What are the gonads?
testes, and ovaries
What happens to testosterone and estrogen over time?
declines over time
What are the roles of the ardenal glands?
play a supportive role in the development of muscle and bones, contribute to sexual motivation
what does the Nervous system deals with?
The brain and spinal cord
What does the peripheral system deal with?
Peripheral system deals with muscle coordination
What is the synapse?
the axon of one neuron makes a connection with another neuron at a tiny gap
What is myelination?
neurons becoming encased in this protective substance that speeds transmission
What is a neuron?
What is mylein sheath?
acts like an insulation to speed the transmission of neural implants
What are the 3 principals of growth?
What is Orthogenetic Principal?
Means the growth is Global or undifferentiated to differentiate
What is Cephalocaudal principal?
Growth from the head to the feet
Motor skills are developed at this stage
Can sit before standing
What is Proximodistal principal?
Growth from the inside out or center outward
When is the critical or sensitive period for brain development?
during the late prenatal period and early infancy
What is a reflex?
an unlearned and involuntary response to a stimulus
What are 4 survival reflexes?
Sucking- to get breast milk, to take in nutrients
Rooting- stroking a baby’s cheek and turn toward the side of where the cheek was stroked
Breathing- Provides oxygen, expels carbon dioxide
Eye blink- protects against bright light, adapts visual system to low illumination
What are 6 primitive reflexes?
Babinski- fanning then curling toes when bottom of foot is stroked
Grasping- curling fingers around objects (such as a finger) that touch the baby’s palm
Moro- loud noise or sudden change in position of baby’s head will cause baby to throw arms outward, arch back, then bring arms toward each other
Swimming- infant immersed in water will display active movements of arms and legs will involuntary hold breath
Tonic neck- heads turned to the side and their arm extends out (fencing pose)
Stepping- Infants held upright so their feet touch a flat surface will step as if to walk
What are the differences of primitive and survival reflexes?
Primitive reflexes disappear overtime when survival reflexes are permanent
What is body mass index?
a marker of body fat calculated from a person's height and weight
what is Precocious puberty?
What is menarche?
first period can have no ovulation
what is semenarche?
Disadvantages for early puberty in boys?
Risk taking behaviors
Not fitting in
Hanging out with older crowd
advantages for early puberty in boys?
Excelling in sports
what is secular trend?
the historical trend in industrialized societies toward early maturation and greater body size
What is menopause/ male andorpause?
What can disease keep you from doing?
what is osteroporosis?
a disease in which a serious loss of minerals leaves the bone fragile and easily fractured
what is osteoarthritis?
results from gradual deterioration of the cartilage that cushions the bones from rubbing against one another
what is intelligence?
the ability to learn from one's experiences acquire knowledge and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
What is the 2 factor theory by Spearman?
What is the g factor?
General problem solving
Ability to solve problems
Very quick thinking (automatic thinking-automatid)
What is the s factor?
deals with specific things
what is the psychometric approach?
intelligence is a trait or a set of traits that characterizes some people to a greater extent than others
What is fluid intelligence? (Horn)
the ability to use your mind actively to solve novel problems like, solve verbal analogies
Ability to use your mind
How well does your mind function
Cannot be taught, either have it or you don’t
What is crystalized intelligence? (cattle)
the use of knowledge acquired through schooling and other life experieneces
Ability to regain, retain and put it to use
ex. Learning mathmatical principals
Being able to use it at any given time
What you learn in school
intelligence scale ranking
intellectually disabled- 70
what is mental age?
The level of age-graded problems that the child is able to solve
What is Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence (9)?
What is linguistic?
Can you put words together
?Are you a great speaker?
What is musical?
Play by ear, highly attitude to sound
Show exceptional ability
What is logical?
General Problem solving
ex. scientists, engineers, architect
What is visual?
ex. Artists, pilots, navigators, astronauts
Being able to see things and how they fit together and be able to transform them
What is bodily kinesthetic?
Being able to use your body, transform it into something amazing
Precise and accurate
To build and construct
Ex. acrobats, athletes, dancers
What is interpersonal?
People who have great social skills
Can read people and get the best from people
ex. psychologist, counselors
What is intrapersonal?
knowing yourself well
what is Naturalistic?
Focus on nature
ex. Jane goodall, Steve Irwin, gardener
What is Existentialism?
Getting the bigger picture
Knowing the meaning of life
knowing the reality of human existence
What is Sternberg Triarchic?
What is practical?
ability to adapt to environment
what is analytic?
What is creative?
What is intelligent when you first begin a task can change after you have an experience with it again
How you respond to something new
what is successful intelligence?
people are intelligent to the extent that they have the abilities to succeed in life
adapt to the environment through a combination of selecting a good environment
What is creativity?
the ability to produce novel (different, unique) responses that are appropriate in context and valued by others
two types of creative thinking?
convert and divergent
what is convergent thinking?
Always leads to one direct answer
Converges on the one best answer
what is divergent thinking?
many different answers
what are the three different dimensions of creative thinking?
number of ideas
what is flexiblity?
How flexible are your responses
How many categories
What is the motor scale for the bayley scales?
infants ability to grab things
what is the mental scale for the baley scales?
reaching, searching for hidden toys
what is the behavior scale in the bayley scales?
emotional regulation and social responsibility
what is dq?
summarizes how well or poorly infants perform compared to others