Life Span Test 2

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Life Span Test 2
2014-10-31 12:19:49
chapters 4, 5, 9
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  1. What is conception/fertilization?
    the genetic material of a sperm and egg (ovum) unite to form a zygote (created 46 chromosome)
  2. What is an ovum?
    sperm and egg
  3. What is a zygote?
    46 chromosomes
  4. What is infertility?
    the inability to conceive with one year of effort
  5. What is Artificial insemination?
    injecting sperm, either from a woman’s partner from a donor, into her uterus
  6. What is in vitro fertilization?
    several eggs are removed from a woman’s ovary and manually combined with sperm in a laboratory dish before being returned to a woman’s uterus in hopes that one egg will implant on the wall of the uterus
  7. What are the 3 periods of the prenatal stage?(Part of 1st essay)
    • 1. Germinal Period
    • 2. Embryonic Period
    • 3. Fetal Period
  8. What happens in the Germinal period?(Part of 1st essay)
    • 1.Mitosis
    • 2.Blastocyst
    • 3. Miscarriage
  9. What is blastocyst (implantation)? (Part of 1st essay)
    • A hollow ball of about 150 cells that is the size of a pin
    • Egg attaches to the lining of the uterus
    • Starts around the sixth day and ends the 14th day
  10. What is a miscarriage? (Part of first essay)
    • A short lived pregnancy
    • Spontaneous Abortion
  11. How long is the Germinal Period? (Part of 1st essay)
    First two weeks of pregnancy
  12. How long is the Embryonic stage? (Part of 1st essay)
    3-8 weeks (most critical time in pregnancy)
  13. What happens in the Embryonic Stage?
    • 1. Organogenesis
    • 2. Amnion
    • 3.Placenta/Chorion
    • 4. Cells of Blastocyst
    • 5. Brain, heart all other body parts formed
  14. What is organogenesis?
    Every major organ takes shape, in at least a primitive form
  15. What is amnion?
    • The outer layer of the blastocyst
    • A watertight membrane that fills with fluid that cushions and protects the embryo
  16. What is the chorion?
    • A membrane that surrounds the amnion and attaches root-like extensions called villi to the uterine liking to gather nourishment for the embryo
    • Eventually becomes the lining of the placenta
  17. What is the placenta?
    • A tissue fed by blood vessels from the mother and connected to the embryo by the umbilical cord
    • Embryo receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother
  18. What is the placental barrier?
    • A membrane that allows small molecules to pass through, but it prevents the large blood cells of embryo and mother from mingling
    • Protects the child from harmful substances
  19. What is the ectoderm? (Part of 1st essay)
    Cells from the blastocyst that will eventually evolve into tissue for the central nervous system
  20. What is the mesoderm? (Part of 1st essay)
    Cells from the blastocyst that will eventually evolve into tissue for the muscle tissue, cartilage, bone, heart
  21. What is the endoderm? (Part of the 1st essay)
    Cells from the blastocyst that will eventually evolve into tissue for the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and bladder
  22. What is spina bifida? (Part of the 1st essay)
    • This could happen during the embryonic stage when the neural tube fails to fully closed 
    • When part of the spinal cord is not fully encased in the protective coverage of the spinal cord
  23. What is anencphaly?
    • Can happen during the embryonic stage when the top of the neural tube fails to close 
    • A lethal defect in which the main portion of the brain above the brain stem fails to develop
  24. What is the role of testosterone in this stage? (Part of the 1st essay)
    • The primary male sex hormone that stimulates the development of a male internal reproductive system 
    • If absent of this hormone the embryo develops internal reproductive system of a female
  25. How long is the fetal period? (Part of the 1st essay)
    9-40 weeks
  26. What happens in the fetal period? (Part of the 1st essay)
    • Proliferation      
    • Migration       
    • Differentiation     
    • Changes in each trimester    
    • Age of viability
  27. What is proliferation?(Part of the 1st essay)
    An intense period of cell growth originating from stem cells undergoing rapid cell division
  28. What is migration?(Part of the 1st essay)
    Cells move or travel to their intended location in the nervous system. Chemical signals may serve as a neural GPS to guide them
  29. What is differentiate? (Part of the 1st essay)
    • Cells change or transform into a particular type based on where they land following their migration
    • Begin to communicate with surrounding neurons
  30. What is the age of viability? (Part of the First essay)
    23 weeks only 25% can survive, when survival outside the uterus is possible, if all of the major areas such as heart and brain are functioning correctly
  31. What are teratogens? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    • Any disease, drug or other environmental agent that can harm a developing fetus
    • Coins monster behaviors, can create a very disordered human being physical or internal (can affect any stage but mostly in the embryonic and fetal stage)
  32. What are the 3 types of teratogens? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    • 1. Drugs
    • 2. Diseases
    • 3. Environmental agents
  33. How does the teratogen effect during the critical period? (Part of the second essay)
    The effects of a teratogenic agent are worst during the critical period when an organ system grows more rapidly
  34. What does dosage and duration have an effect with teratogens? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    The greater the level of exposure and the longer the exposure to a teratogen, the more likely it is that serious damage will occur
  35. What is the effect of the genetic makeup have on the teratogens?
    • susceptibility to harm is influenced by the unborn child's and the mother's makeup.
    • Some fetuses are more (or less) resistant to teratogens
  36. What are some drugs? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    • Medication
    • Thalidomide
    • Tobacco
    • SIDS
    • Alcohol
    • Cocaine
  37. What is thalidomide? (Part of 2nd essay)
    Can effect facial features and the limbs
  38. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? (Part of 2nd essay)?
    people are smaller, distinct facial features, intellectually disabled, infects migration of the neurons (Severe)
  39. What is fetal alcohol effects? (Part of the 2nd essay)?
    Might have some of the features in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (less severe)
  40. The 4 affects of cocaine? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    • Withdrawl
    • Spontaneous abortion
    • Low birth rate
    • cognitive issues
  41. The 3 affects of Marijuana? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    • 1. Low birth rate
    • 2. Respiratory issues
    • 3. Emotional issues
  42. What is SIDS? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
  43. What are 4 diseases? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    • Rubella
    • Diabetes
    • AIDS
    • Syphillis
  44. What is Rubella? (Part of the 2nd essay)
    German measles
  45. What are the ways AIDS can be passed down? (Part of the second essay)
    • Prenatally- passing through the placenta
    • Medication given to prevent the baby from getting Aids
    • Perinatal- Anytime surrounding when the baby is coming out
    • Postnatal- Breast feeding
  46. What does Syphilis cause? (Part of 2nd essay)
    Still birth
  47. What are some environmental agents? (Part of essay 2)
    • raditaion
    • stress
    • nutrition
  48. What is the prenatal environment?
    the environment surrounding birth
  49. What is a perinatologist?
    • a fetal specialist
    • Recommended for high-risk pregnancies associated with delivery complications
  50. What is a midwife?
    view pregnancy and delivery as natural life events
  51. What is a doula?
    An individual trained to provide continuous physical and emotional support throughout the child birth process
  52. What is anoxia?
    • oxygen shortage
    • tangled umbilici cord
    • Baby being born feet first
  53. What is cerebral palsy?
    A neurological disability primarily associated with difficulty controlling muscle movements
  54. What is Cesarean Section?
    a surgical procedure in which an incision is made int he mother's abdomen and uterus so that the baby can be removed
  55. What is postpartum depression?
    an episode of clinical depression lasting 2 or more weeks
  56. What is oxytocin?
    A hormone released by the pituitary gland that can initiate and speed up contractions
  57. What is couvade? (Father's experience with pregnancy)
    when the males experience some of the same symptoms as the pregnant wife
  58. What is neonatal environment?
    the events of the first month and how parents might optimize the development of young infants
  59. What is surfactant?
    a substance that prevents the air sacs of the lungs from sticking together and therefore aids breathing
  60. What is kangaroo care?
    resting on a parents chest helps maintain body temperature, heart rate, and oxygen levels in the blood
  61. What is resilience?
    their ability to rebound from early disadvantages and to respond to environment influences throughout their lives rather than only during so called critical periods
  62. What is ciliac disease?
    an inherited digestive problem in which gluten triggers an immune response that leads to inflammation and damages small intestines
  63. What is catch up growth?
    after a period of malnutrition or illness reflects the body’s struggle to get back real quick to where it is supposed to be
  64. What is endocrine glands?
    A hormonal system of glands, secrete different hormones and they secrete those hormones into the bloodstream
  65. What is pituitary glands?
    • master of the endocrine
    • triggers the release of hormones from all other endocrine glands by sending hormonal messages to those glands
    • located in the brain
  66. What is thyroid gland?
    has a role in physical growth and metabolism
  67. What are the gonads?
    testes, and ovaries
  68. What happens to testosterone and estrogen over time?
    declines over time
  69. What are the roles of the ardenal glands?
    play a supportive role in the development of muscle and bones, contribute to sexual motivation
  70. what does the Nervous system deals with?
    The brain and spinal cord
  71. What does the peripheral system deal with?
    Peripheral system deals with muscle coordination
  72. What is the synapse?
    the axon of one neuron makes a connection with another neuron at a tiny gap
  73. What is myelination?
    neurons becoming encased in this protective substance that speeds transmission
  74. What is a neuron?
  75. What is mylein sheath?
    • fatty sheath
    • acts like an insulation to speed the transmission of neural implants
  76. What are the 3 principals of growth?
    • 1. Cephalocaudal
    • 2. Proximodistal
    • 3. Orthogenetic
  77. What is Orthogenetic Principal?
    Means the growth is Global or undifferentiated to differentiate
  78. What is Cephalocaudal principal?
    • Growth from the head to the feet
    • Motor skills are developed at this stage
    • Can sit before standing
  79. What is Proximodistal principal?
    Growth from the inside out or center outward
  80. When is the critical or sensitive period for brain development?
    during the late prenatal period and early infancy
  81. What is a reflex?
    an unlearned and involuntary response to a stimulus
  82. What are 4 survival reflexes?
    • Sucking- to get breast milk, to take in nutrients
    • Rooting- stroking a baby’s cheek and turn toward the side of where the cheek was stroked
    • Breathing- Provides oxygen, expels carbon dioxide
    • Eye blink-  protects against bright light, adapts visual system to low illumination
  83. What are 6 primitive reflexes?
    • Babinski- fanning then curling toes when bottom of foot is stroked
    • Grasping- curling fingers around objects (such as a finger) that touch the baby’s palm
    • Moro- loud noise or sudden change in position of baby’s head will cause baby to throw arms outward, arch back, then bring arms toward each other
    • Swimming- infant immersed in water will display active movements of arms and legs will involuntary hold breath
    • Tonic neck- heads turned to the side and their arm extends out (fencing pose)
    • Stepping- Infants held upright so their feet touch a flat surface will step as if to walk
  84. What are the differences of primitive and survival reflexes?
    Primitive reflexes disappear overtime when survival reflexes are permanent
  85. What is body mass index?
    a marker of body fat calculated from a person's height and weight
  86. what is Precocious puberty?
    early puberty
  87. What is menarche?
    first period can have no ovulation
  88. what is semenarche?
    first ejaculation
  89. Disadvantages for early puberty in boys?
    • Risk taking behaviors
    • Not fitting in
    • Hanging out with older crowd
  90. advantages for early puberty in boys?
    • Excelling in sports
    • Confidence
  91. what is secular trend?
    the historical trend in industrialized societies toward early maturation and greater body size
  92. What is menopause/ male andorpause?
    less testosterone
  93. What can disease keep you from doing?
  94. what is osteroporosis?
    a disease in which a serious loss of minerals leaves the bone fragile and easily fractured
  95. what is osteoarthritis?
    results from gradual deterioration of the cartilage that cushions the bones from rubbing against one another
  96. what is intelligence?
    the ability to learn from one's experiences acquire knowledge and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems
  97. What is the 2 factor theory by Spearman?
    • S factor
    • G factor
  98. What is the g factor?
    • General problem solving
    • Ability to solve problems
    • Very quick thinking (automatic thinking-automatid)
  99. What is the s factor?
    deals with specific things
  100. what is the psychometric approach?
    intelligence is a trait or a set of traits that characterizes some people to a greater extent than others
  101. What is fluid intelligence? (Horn)
    • the ability to use your mind actively to solve novel problems like, solve verbal analogies
    • Ability to use your mind
    • How well does your mind function
    • Cannot be taught, either have it or you don’t
  102. What is crystalized intelligence? (cattle)
    • the use of knowledge acquired through schooling and other life experieneces
    • Ability to regain, retain and put it to use
    • ex. Learning mathmatical principals
    • Being able to use it at any given time
    • What you learn in school
  103. intelligence scale ranking
    • intellectually disabled- 70
    • Gifted-110
    • Genius- 140
  104. what is mental age?
    The level of age-graded problems that the child is able to solve
  105. What is Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence (9)?
    • Linguistic
    • Musical
    • Interpersonal
    • Intrapersonal
    • Logical
    • Visual
    • bodily kinisthetic 
    • Naturalistic
    • Existentialism
  106. What is linguistic?
    • Can you put words together
    • ?Are you a great speaker?
    • Author, poet
  107. What is musical?
    • Play by ear, highly attitude to sound
    • Show exceptional ability
  108. What is logical?
    • Abstract thinking
    • General Problem solving
    • ex. scientists, engineers, architect
  109. What is visual?
    • ex. Artists, pilots, navigators, astronauts
    • Being able to see things and how they fit together and be able to transform them
  110. What is bodily kinesthetic?
    • Being able to use your body, transform it into something amazing
    • Precise and accurate
    • To build and construct
    • Ex. acrobats, athletes, dancers
  111. What is interpersonal?
    • People who have great social skills
    • Can read people and get the best from people
    • ex. psychologist, counselors
  112. What is intrapersonal?
    knowing yourself well
  113. what is Naturalistic?
    • Focus on nature
    • ex. Jane goodall, Steve Irwin, gardener
  114. What is Existentialism?
    • Getting the bigger picture
    • Knowing the meaning of life
    • Wisdom
    • knowing the reality of human existence
    • ex. philosophers
  115. What is Sternberg Triarchic?
    • Practical
    • Analytical
    • Creative
  116. What is practical?
    • ability to adapt to environment
    • street smarts
  117. what is analytic?
    book smarts
  118. What is creative?
    • What is intelligent when you first begin a task can change after you have an experience with it again
    • How you respond to something new
  119. what is successful intelligence?
    • people are intelligent to the extent that they have the abilities to succeed in life
    • adapt to the environment through a combination of selecting a good environment
  120. What is creativity?
    the ability to produce novel (different, unique) responses that are appropriate in context and valued by others
  121. two types of creative thinking?
    convert and divergent
  122. what is convergent thinking?
    • Always leads to one direct answer
    • Converges on the one best answer
  123. what is divergent thinking?
    many different answers
  124. what are the three different dimensions of creative thinking?
    • originality/uniqueness
    • flexibility
    • number of ideas
  125. what is flexiblity?
    • How flexible are your responses
    • How many categories
  126. What is the motor scale for the bayley scales?
    infants ability to grab things
  127. what is the mental scale for the baley scales?
    reaching, searching for hidden toys
  128. what is the behavior scale in the bayley scales?
    emotional regulation and social responsibility
  129. what is dq?
    summarizes how well or poorly infants perform compared to others