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In what ways does eggs help as an ingredient? (9)
Yolk and eggs weight
Makes up 30% of the egg's weight
What was the yolk designed for?
To nourish the chick that is supposed to be inside the egg
Invaluable ingredient: example of how it contributes to structure
Gives foam structure to baked goods
Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to color?
Adds color to lemon pie and eggnog
Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to leaven?
Leavening souffles and popovers
Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to coat?
Coating food prior to breading
Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to clarify?
It clarifies liquids for soups thus making it look clear
Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to thicken?
Thickens custard and puddings
Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to emulsify?
Thicken & stabilize salad dressings, sauce, and mayo
Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to bind?
Binds ingredients in meatloaf and casseroles
Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to glaze?
Gives glaze appearance in pastries
What is the germinal disc?
Is a spot on the yolk that appears darker if the egg is fertilized
What does the color of the yolk depend on?
On the diet of the chicken
What is albumen?
Eggs weight and albumen
It comprises of 58 % of egg's weight
What is albumen consist of?
-mostly protein and water
What is Chalazae?
Located at the top & bottom that anchors the yolk to the center of the egg white
What is vitelline membrane?
Is the membrane surrounding the egg yolk
What is the vitelline membrane attached to?
To the Chalazae
What is the purpose of the shell membranes?
Inner and outer shell membranes are there to protect it from bacterial invasion
Where is the air cell located?
Between the 2 shell membranes
Egg's weight and shell
It comprises 12% of eggs weight
What is the shell composed off?
What is the cuticle or bloom on a shell?
It is the waxy coating on the eggshell
What function does cuticle or bloom on the egg serve?
It protects against bacteria & moisture loss
What does the egg products inspection act enforce?
Requires that egg processing plants be inspected and that their eggs and egg products be wholesome, unadultered, and truthfully labeled
Who enforces the egg products inspection act?
USDA poultry division
What happens to the eggs that fail the USDA inspection? (2)
They are considered as restricted eggs and cannot be sold to consumers
Which 2 are the best quality grade eggs?
Where 2 types of eggs are sold to supermarket?
-USDA grade AA
-USDA grade A
What is the lowest grade placed on egg?
USDA grade B
What happens to USDA grade B eggs?
- They are sold to food service establishments
- *cannot be sold to consumers
What are 3 ways to grade eggs?
-measuring haugh units
What is candling?
- Determines egg quality based on observing eggs against a light
- *determines interior quality
What is grading eggs by haugh units?
- Freshness of an egg detected by cracking it open onto a flat surface & looking at height of thick albumen
- *fresh egg whites will sit up tall & firm
- *older ones will spread out
Why are egg substitutes created?
bc the demand of the public to have eggs with low cholesterol.
What is the drawback with egg substitutes?
May have higher sodium
Which fat soluble vitamins do eggs have? (4)
Which water soluble vitamins do eggs have? (5)
Which 5 minerals do eggs have?
Why is iron not bioavailable?
It binds with a protein that inhibits its digestion
What gives the odor in overcooked eggs?
Iron & sulfur reacting
How many grams of protein in one large egg?
How many grams of protein are found in white?
How many grams of protein are found in yolk?
How many grams of fat does the yolk contain?
Percent of monounsaturated fat in yolk
Percent of saturated fat in yolk?
How many mg of cholesterol is there in eggs?
How many mg per 1000 kcal does AMA recommend?
100 mg per 1K kcal
What 4 things are evaluated in appearance?
-thickness of albumen
-prominence of Chalazae
-roundness & fullness of yolk
-shape, cleanliness, texture of shell
Is sizing related to grading ?
No it is not
How are sizing determined?
By the minimum weight for a dozen eggs in their shell
3 reasons why value added eggs have special attributes bc of...
-special feeding practices
-conditions under which hens are raised
What are some examples of value-added eggs?
-lower cholesterol eggs
-higher omega 3
What are the 4 types of chicken eggs?
- free range
What are 5 type of non-chicken eggs?
Food prep) what allows the egg to be a natural emulsify agent?
It contains lecithin which is a natural emulsifying agent
How does lecithin function?
One end of the molecule it attracts water while the other attracts fat
Food prep) what allows eggs to be good at binding?
Its high protein content
Food prep) what makes them good at foaming?
Egg whites are capable of increasing to 6-8 times their original volume
Which type of eggs are best for foaming?
Fresh eggs bc they have thicken egg whites
Dry egg whites and foaming
Dry egg whites provide consistent results when foaming
Factors affecting foaming) Beating technique: what is it best to use when beating?
Factors affecting foaming) beating technique: speed of beating
Start slow then gradually increase speed
Factors affecting foaming) beating technique: testing for doneness (2)
-Peak tips fall over slight but keeps shape
-foam sticks to sides of the bowl
Factors affecting foaming) beating technique: how to tell over whipping (2)
-peaks become tall, dry, & not shiny
-foam will separate
Factors affecting foaming) temp: what should be the temp for bowl, beaters, and eggs?
Factors affecting foaming) bowl: what type of bowl should be used?
- deep bowl with rounded bottom & slopping slides to allow whites to be picked up by beater
Factors affecting foaming) bowl: what type of bowl should be avoided?
Avoid plastic bowls bc they interfere with foam formation
Factors affecting foaming) separation of eggs: what does egg yolk contain that will interfere with foam?
Factors affecting foaming) separation of eggs: what should be used to separate egg white from yolk
Factors affecting foaming) separation of eggs: Passing egg back and forth between 2 shell halves? Yes or no?
No, bc of microbial contamination
Factors affecting foaming) sugar: effects ? (2)
-inhibits coagulation hindering foam formation
Factors affecting foaming) sugar: when should sugar be added?
Near the end of beating
Factors affecting foaming) fluid: effects? (2)
Factors affecting foaming) salt: effects?
-decreases stability and volume
Factors affecting foaming) salt : is it ever used?
Factors affecting foaming) acid: effects?
-lower pH creates more stable foam thus should be lowered by using lemon juice or cream of tartar
How do eggs live up to interfering?
They interfere with formation of ice crystals that's why they are used in frozen desserts
How do eggs live up to clarifying?
Egg white protein attracts particles so they can be removed thus making the product clear & pure
How does egg live up to color?
Yolk contribute to golden brown color
3 changes in prepared eggs
- effects of temperature & time
-effects of added ingredients
Changes in prepared eggs) effects of temp and time: what are keys when cooking? (2)
-keep temp low
-cooking time short
Changes in prepared eggs) effects of temp and time: coagulation temps for egg white
Changes in prepared eggs) effects of temp and time: coagulation temps for egg yolk?
Changes in prepared eggs) effects of temp and time: coagulation temps for beaten eggs
Coagulate at slightly higher temp
Changes in prepared eggs) effects of adding ingrdients
Adding ingredients can change the temps of coagulation to occur
Changes in prepared eggs) color changes
If cooked too much, color will change to green or brown depending on the circumstance
Dry heat) baked: stirred eggs? (2)
-served in indivudal dishes
Dry heat) baked: meringues
Whipped egg whites + sugar that are used as pie topping, cake layer, frosting
Dry heat) baked: souffles
What's weeping? (2)
-Escape of liquid to the bottom of a meringue or
- formation of pores filled with liquid
What causes weeping?
What is beading?
Formation of tiny syrup droplets on the surface of a baked meringue
What is white sauce?
Mixture of flour, milk, & usually fat
Dry heat) baked: souffles: base of souffles
Thick base from white sauce or pastry cream. Egg white foam, and flavoring ingredients
Dry heat) baked: soufflés: what do we do to stiffly beaten egg whites?
They are folded into thick egg yolk mixture
Moist-heat prep) 5 methods that fall under
-coddled eggs prepared in a cup
Moist-heat prep) what do all of these types of cooking eggs have in common?
Eggs are cooked at simmering temperatures
Moist-heat prep) what are the 2 types of boiling eggs methods?
Moist-heat prep) description of hot start
-water heated first then eggs are added to boiling water
*simmer after the eggs have been added
Moist-heat prep) hot start: how long to get soft?
Moist-heat prep) hot start: how long to get a medium?
Moist-heat prep) hot start: how long to get hard?
Moist-heat prep) hot start: benefits (3)
-greater temp control
-eggs are easier to peel
-shorter cooking time
Moist-heat prep) hot start: drawback?
EGGS CAN crack when adding them into water
Moist-heat prep) cold start: what is it?
Eggs are added with water then water is heated
Moist-heat prep) cold start: how long to simmer to get a soft egg?
Moist-heat prep) cold start: how long to simmer to get a medium egg?
Moist-heat prep) cold start: how long to simmer to get a hard egg?
Moist-heat prep) cold start: benefits (2)
- less attention to focus
-less chance to break the egg
Moist-heat prep) cold start: drawbacks (2)
-shells surface might be more rubbery
-more likely to come out green
Moist-heat prep) Custard: ingredients ? (5)
-sugar or honey
-egg or egg yolks
Moist-heat prep) Custard: 2 types of tastes in custard
Moist-heat prep) Custard: 2 ways to prepare it
Moist-heat prep) Custard: sweet custards (2)
Puddings or as fillings
Moist-heat prep) Custard: savory custards
Moist-heat prep) Custard: stirred custard (2)
-soft custard or custard sauce
-ingredients stirred while heated
Moist-heat prep) Custard: baked custard (2)
-Poured into untreated custard cups
-placed in the oven
Moist-heat prep) microwaving: what should be done to the egg prior to microwaving it?
Puncture egg yolks with toothpick
Moist-heat prep) microwaving: what should never be microwaved
Whole eggs with intact shells
Moist-heat prep) microwaving: why should there be caution? (3)
-eggs cook extremely rapidly
-to avoid overcooking
-steam expanding within shell can cause eggs to burst
An egg ages more in 1 day at room temp than..
1 week refrigerated
What 3 things should be done to ensure freshness?
Size of air cell and age
Size of an egg's air cell provides another indication of its age
Storage and restaurants and places like that?
They must be careful about storing eggs bc they purchase in large quantities
how long can storage eggs be stored for?
What are storage eggs treated with?
Light coat of oil or plastic to prevent microbial contamination
Storage eggs and refrigerator temps
These should be stored in high humidity at low fridge temps very close to eggs freezing point (29-32 f)
Can you freeze a whole egg? Why or why not?
No bc it will crack under the expanding liquids
How do manufacturers freeze eggs? (3)
They split egg open and separate them into...
-whites & yolks together
-whites & yolks separate
What results from drying an egg?
Fine powder that is mixed with anti faking substances to prevent clumping
What 2 things get spray dried?
Whole eggs and separated yolks
Storage) how are egg whites stored?
Kept in tight closed container to prevent clumping that can result from moisture accumulation
Storage) how long can they be stored in fridge?
Chances a commercial egg will be contaminated?
1 in 10,000
When is the most common time for contamination to occur?
Handling & prep after egg has been removed from its shell