Exam 8 : eggs

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  1. In what ways does eggs help as an ingredient? (9)








  2. Yolk and eggs weight
    Makes up 30% of the egg's weight
  3. What was the yolk designed for?
    To nourish the chick that is supposed to be inside the egg
  4. Invaluable ingredient: example of how it contributes to structure
    Gives foam structure to baked goods
  5. Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to color?
    Adds color to lemon pie and eggnog
  6. Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to leaven?
    Leavening souffles and popovers
  7. Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to coat?
    Coating food prior to breading
  8. Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to clarify?
    It clarifies liquids for soups thus making it look clear
  9. Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to thicken?
    Thickens custard and puddings
  10. Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to emulsify?
    Thicken & stabilize salad dressings, sauce, and mayo
  11. Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to bind?
    Binds ingredients in meatloaf and casseroles
  12. Invaluable ingredient: how does it contribute to glaze?
    Gives glaze appearance in pastries
  13. What is the germinal disc?
    Is a spot on the yolk that appears darker if the egg is fertilized
  14. What does the color of the yolk depend on?
    On the diet of the chicken
  15. What is albumen?
    Egg whites
  16. Eggs weight and albumen
    It comprises of 58 % of egg's weight
  17. What is albumen consist of?
    -mostly protein and water
  18. What is Chalazae?
    Located at the top & bottom that anchors the yolk to the center of the egg white
  19. What is vitelline membrane?
    Is the membrane surrounding the egg yolk
  20. What is the vitelline membrane attached to?
    To the Chalazae
  21. What is the purpose of the shell membranes?
    Inner and outer shell membranes are there to protect it from bacterial invasion
  22. Where is the air cell located?
    Between the 2 shell membranes
  23. Egg's weight and shell
    It comprises 12% of eggs weight
  24. What is the shell composed off?
    Calcium carbonate
  25. What is the cuticle or bloom on a shell?
    It is the waxy coating on the eggshell
  26. What function does cuticle or bloom on the egg serve?
    It protects against bacteria & moisture loss
  27. What does the egg products inspection act enforce?
    Requires that egg processing plants be inspected and that their eggs and egg products be wholesome, unadultered, and truthfully labeled
  28. Who enforces the egg products inspection act?
    USDA poultry division
  29. What happens to the eggs that fail the USDA inspection? (2)
    They are considered as restricted eggs and cannot be sold to consumers
  30. Which 2 are the best quality grade eggs?
    -USDA AA

    -USDA A
  31. Where 2 types of eggs are sold to supermarket?
    -USDA grade AA

    -USDA grade A
  32. What is the lowest grade placed on egg?
    USDA grade B
  33. What happens to USDA grade B eggs?
    • They are sold to food service establishments
    • *cannot be sold to consumers
  34. What are 3 ways to grade eggs?

    -measuring haugh units

    -evaluating appearance
  35. What is candling?
    • Determines egg quality based on observing eggs against a light
    • *determines interior quality
  36. What is grading eggs by haugh units?
    • Freshness of an egg detected by cracking it open onto a flat surface & looking at height of thick albumen
    • *fresh egg whites will sit up tall & firm
    • *older ones will spread out
  37. Why are egg substitutes created?
    bc the demand of the public to have eggs with low cholesterol.
  38. What is the drawback with egg substitutes?
    May have higher sodium
  39. Which fat soluble vitamins do eggs have? (4)



  40. Which water soluble vitamins do eggs have? (5)




    -pantothenic acid
  41. Which 5 minerals do eggs have?




  42. Why is iron not bioavailable?
    It binds with a protein that inhibits its digestion
  43. What gives the odor in overcooked eggs?
    Iron & sulfur reacting
  44. How many grams of protein in one large egg?
    7 grams
  45. How many grams of protein are found in white?
  46. How many grams of protein are found in yolk?
  47. How many grams of fat does the yolk contain?
    5 grams
  48. Percent of monounsaturated fat in yolk
  49. Percent of saturated fat in yolk?
  50. How many mg of cholesterol is there in eggs?
    213 mg
  51. How many mg per 1000 kcal does AMA recommend?
    100 mg per 1K kcal
  52. What 4 things are evaluated in appearance?
    -thickness of albumen

    -prominence of Chalazae

    -roundness & fullness of yolk

    -shape, cleanliness, texture of shell
  53. Is sizing related to grading ?
    No it is not
  54. How are sizing determined?
    By the minimum weight for a dozen eggs in their shell
  55. 3 reasons why value added eggs have special attributes bc of...
    -special feeding practices

    -nutrient content

    -conditions under which hens are raised
  56. What are some examples of value-added eggs?
    -lower cholesterol eggs

    -higher omega 3

    -free range
  57. What are the 4 types of chicken eggs?


    - free range

  58. What are 5 type of non-chicken eggs?




  59. Food prep) what allows the egg to be a natural emulsify agent?
    It contains lecithin which is a natural emulsifying agent
  60. How does lecithin function?
    One end of the molecule it attracts water while the other attracts fat
  61. Food prep) what allows eggs to be good at binding?
    Its high protein content
  62. Food prep) what makes them good at foaming?
    Egg whites are capable of increasing to 6-8 times their original volume
  63. Which type of eggs are best for foaming?
    Fresh eggs bc they have thicken egg whites
  64. Dry egg whites and foaming
    Dry egg whites provide consistent results when foaming
  65. Factors affecting foaming) Beating technique: what is it best to use when beating?
    Electric mixer
  66. Factors affecting foaming) beating technique: speed of beating
    Start slow then gradually increase speed
  67. Factors affecting foaming) beating technique: testing for doneness (2)
    -Peak tips fall over slight but keeps shape

    -foam sticks to sides of the bowl
  68. Factors affecting foaming) beating technique: how to tell over whipping (2)
    -peaks become tall, dry, & not shiny

    -foam will separate
  69. Factors affecting foaming) temp: what should be the temp for bowl, beaters, and eggs?
    Room temp
  70. Factors affecting foaming) bowl: what type of bowl should be used?
    - deep bowl with rounded bottom & slopping slides to allow whites to be picked up by beater
  71. Factors affecting foaming) bowl: what type of bowl should be avoided?
    Avoid plastic bowls bc they interfere with foam formation
  72. Factors affecting foaming) separation of eggs: what does egg yolk contain that will interfere with foam?
  73. Factors affecting foaming) separation of eggs: what should be used to separate egg white from yolk
    Egg separators
  74. Factors affecting foaming) separation of eggs: Passing egg back and forth between 2 shell halves? Yes or no?
    No, bc of microbial contamination
  75. Factors affecting foaming) sugar: effects ? (2)
    -stabilizes foam

    -inhibits coagulation hindering foam formation
  76. Factors affecting foaming) sugar: when should sugar be added?
    Near the end of beating
  77. Factors affecting foaming) fluid: effects? (2)
    -increases volume

    -decreases stability
  78. Factors affecting foaming) salt: effects?
    -decreases stability and volume
  79. Factors affecting foaming) salt : is it ever used?
    Rarely added
  80. Factors affecting foaming) acid: effects?
    -lower pH creates more stable foam thus should be lowered by using lemon juice or cream of tartar
  81. How do eggs live up to interfering?
    They interfere with formation of ice crystals that's why they are used in frozen desserts
  82. How do eggs live up to clarifying?
    Egg white protein attracts particles so they can be removed thus making the product clear & pure
  83. How does egg live up to color?
    Yolk contribute to golden brown color
  84. 3 changes in prepared eggs
    - effects of temperature & time

    -effects of added ingredients

    -color changes
  85. Changes in prepared eggs) effects of temp and time:  what are keys when cooking? (2)
    -keep temp low

    -cooking time short
  86. Changes in prepared eggs) effects of temp and time: coagulation temps for egg white
    140-158 F
  87. Changes in prepared eggs) effects of temp and time: coagulation temps for egg yolk?
    144-158 F
  88. Changes in prepared eggs) effects of temp and time: coagulation temps for beaten eggs
    Coagulate at slightly higher temp

  89. Changes in prepared eggs) effects of adding ingrdients
    Adding ingredients can change the temps of coagulation to occur
  90. Changes in prepared eggs) color changes
    If cooked too much, color will change to green or brown depending on the circumstance
  91. Dry heat) baked: stirred eggs? (2)

    -served in indivudal dishes
  92. Dry heat) baked: meringues
    Whipped egg whites + sugar that are used as pie topping, cake layer, frosting
  93. Dry heat) baked: souffles
    Modified omelet
  94. What's weeping? (2)
    -Escape of liquid to the bottom of a meringue or

    - formation of pores filled with liquid
  95. What causes weeping?
    Underbeaten eggs
  96. What is beading?
    Formation of tiny syrup droplets on the surface of a baked meringue
  97. What is white sauce?
    Mixture of flour, milk, & usually fat
  98. Dry heat) baked: souffles:  base of souffles
    Thick base from white sauce or pastry cream. Egg white foam, and flavoring ingredients
  99. Dry heat) baked: soufflés: what do we do to stiffly beaten egg whites?
    They are folded into thick egg yolk mixture
  100. Moist-heat prep) 5 methods that fall under

    -coddled eggs prepared in a cup



  101. Moist-heat prep) what do all of these types of cooking eggs have in common?
    Eggs are cooked at simmering temperatures
  102. Moist-heat prep) what are the 2 types of boiling eggs methods?
    -Hot start

    -cold start
  103. Moist-heat prep) description of hot start
    -water heated first then eggs are added to boiling water

    *simmer after the eggs have been added
  104. Moist-heat prep) hot start: how long to get soft?
    3-4 mins
  105. Moist-heat prep) hot start: how long to get a medium?
    5-7 mins
  106. Moist-heat prep) hot start: how long to get hard?
    12-15 mins
  107. Moist-heat prep) hot start: benefits (3)
    -greater temp control

    -eggs are easier to peel

    -shorter cooking time
  108. Moist-heat prep) hot start: drawback?
    EGGS CAN crack when adding them into water
  109. Moist-heat prep) cold start: what is it?
    Eggs are added with water then water is heated
  110. Moist-heat prep) cold start: how long to simmer to get a soft egg?
    1 min
  111. Moist-heat prep) cold start: how long to simmer to get a medium egg?
    3-5 mins
  112. Moist-heat prep) cold start: how long to simmer to get a hard egg?
    10 mins
  113. Moist-heat prep) cold start: benefits (2)
    - less attention to focus

    -less chance to break the egg
  114. Moist-heat prep) cold start: drawbacks (2)
    -shells surface might be more rubbery

    -more likely to come out green
  115. Moist-heat prep) Custard: ingredients ? (5)


    -sugar or honey


    -egg or egg yolks
  116. Moist-heat prep) Custard: 2 types of tastes in custard

  117. Moist-heat prep) Custard: 2 ways to prepare it

  118. Moist-heat prep) Custard: sweet custards (2)
    Puddings or as fillings
  119. Moist-heat prep) Custard: savory custards
    • nonsweet
    • *quiches
  120. Moist-heat prep) Custard: stirred custard (2)
    -soft custard or custard sauce

    -ingredients stirred while heated
  121. Moist-heat prep) Custard: baked custard (2)
    -Poured into untreated custard cups

    -placed in the oven
  122. Moist-heat prep) microwaving: what should be done to the egg prior to microwaving it?
    Puncture egg yolks with toothpick
  123. Moist-heat prep) microwaving: what should never be microwaved
    Whole eggs with intact shells
  124. Moist-heat prep) microwaving: why should there be caution? (3)
    -eggs cook extremely rapidly

    -to avoid overcooking

    -steam expanding within shell can cause eggs to burst
  125. An egg ages more in 1 day at room temp than..
    1 week refrigerated
  126. What 3 things should be done to ensure freshness?


  127. Size of air cell and age
    Size of an egg's air cell provides another indication of its age
  128. Storage and restaurants and places like that?
    They must be careful about storing eggs bc they purchase in large quantities
  129. how long can storage eggs be stored for?
    6 months
  130. What are storage eggs treated with?
    Light coat of oil or plastic to prevent microbial contamination
  131. Storage eggs and refrigerator temps
    These should be stored in high humidity at low fridge temps very close to eggs freezing point (29-32 f)
  132. Can you freeze a whole egg? Why or why not?
    No bc it will crack under the expanding liquids
  133. How do manufacturers freeze eggs? (3)
    They split egg open and separate them into...

    -whites & yolks together

    -whites & yolks separate
  134. What results from drying an egg?
    Fine powder that is mixed with anti faking substances to prevent clumping
  135. What 2 things get spray dried?
    Whole eggs and separated yolks
  136. Storage) how are egg whites stored?
    Kept in tight closed container to prevent clumping that can result from moisture accumulation
  137. Storage) how long can they be stored in fridge?
    1 year
  138. Chances a commercial egg will be contaminated?
    1 in 10,000
  139. When is the most common time for contamination to occur?
    Handling & prep after egg has been removed from its shell
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Exam 8 : eggs
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