social psych exam 2

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social psych exam 2
2014-10-30 18:25:40
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social psych exam 2
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  1. confusion of responsibility
    others might think you were responsible for victims suffering
  2. audience inhibition
    don't want to look stupid in front of others
  3. pluralistic ignorance
    interpret as non-emergency
  4. pluralistic ignorance:
    what if you saw smoke??
    • when ALONE: 
    • respond in 2 mins: 50%
    • respond in 6 mins: 75%

    • when 3 people filling out in same room:
    • respond in 2 mins: 12%
    • respond in 6 mins: 38%
  5. the case of kitty genovese
    • attacked on street for 45 mins, 38 witnesses saw or heard & did not intervene
    • (911 created after this)
  6. bystander effect
    the greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency, the less likely any one of them is to help (seizure studies)
  7. right ventral prefrontal cortex
    • inhibition of pain distress and negative affect
    • possibly regulates ACC
    • may improve pain symptoms
  8. anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)
    • - conflict monitoring; neural "alarm system" (something's wrong!)
    • - activated when experiencing physical pain
  9. ostracism
    • to be rejected, ignored or excluded
    • type of "normative" social influence ("outkast")

    • consequences:
    • increased anxiety//depression
    • withdrawal from social connection
    • negative attention (violence/suicide)
  10. social facilitation
    when the presence of others energizes us
  11. social loafing
    when the presence of others relaxes us; relax in the presence of others when their individual performance cannot be evaluated
  12. group
    3+ people who interact with each other and goals/needs influence each other
  13. why groups??
    • NEED TO BELONG: sense of where we're meant to be
    • TO BE DISTINCTIVE: they separate us from others
    • IDENTIFY: gives us uniqueness
  14. social roles
    shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
  15. deindividuation
    getting lost in a crowd

    • loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be identified
    • less accountability
    • obedience to group norms
  16. suicide baiting
    • encouragement of suicide attempt
    • greater crowd size and darkness increase suicide baiting
  17. justifying cruelty
  18. hypocrisy paradigm
    • 1) make person aware of conflict between attitudes and behavior
    • 2) hypocrisy creates dissonance
    • 3) reduce dissonance by changing behavior

    we can shape positive behavior by creating cognitive dissonance by making people aware of their own hypocrisy
  19. social facilitation
    people around us facilitate our dominant response on a task when our individual performance can be evaluated
  20. low balling
    • frequently customer agrees to make purchase at inflated price
    • temporary permanence already increased attractiveness of chosen option
  21. justification of effort
    if something (situation/group) is ambiguous we may increase our liking for that object because we have worked hard to attain it
  22. counter attitudinal advocacy
    stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude
  23. induced compliance
    people will change their attitude to match their behavior provided they did not have a compelling reason for behavior as they did
  24. self persuasion
    a long lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification
  25. cognitive dissonance theory
    • people adhere inconsistency among and between their cognitions (knowledge we have about the environment and ourselves including knowledge about our attitudes, behaviors & feelings)
    • inconsistency produces dissonance (negative) (needs to be reduced)
  26. external justification
    a reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual
  27. internal justification
    • when external justification is not met, we engage in internal justification to reduce dissonance
    • we change our own attitudes or behaviors
  28. self evaluation
    people want valid information about themselves
  29. self improvement
    people want to get better
  30. self enhancement
    people want to feel good about themselves
  31. self-verification theory
    • a desire to be known
    • we desire to receive evaluations from others that are consistent with ones existing self views
  32. self affirmation theory
    • people are motivated to protect the perceived integrity and worth to self
    • if theres a threat to self worth we tend to affirm other aspects of ourselves to compensate for the blow (flexible self system)
  33. flexible self system
    if there is a threat to our self worth, we tend to affirm other aspects of ourselves to compensate for the blow
  34. multidimensional self
    • time: past, current, future
    • self-regulation: ideal, feared, ought to, ought not to
    • has multiple domains (musician, athlete)
  35. self regulatory self
    ideal, feared, ought to, ought to not
  36. self complexity
    one is usually more resilient (emotional stability, self evaluation stability) especially in the face of failure
  37. relational self
    • knowledge about ourselves is linked with knowledge about significant others way we think about ourselves 
    • tends to be seen in everyone
  38. interdependent self
    • defining oneself in terms of one's relationship to other people
    • tends to be seen: east asian, african
  39. relational interdependence
    • others=close relationships
    • seen in: women
  40. collective interdependence
    • others = larger groups
    • seen in: men
  41. interdependent self (culture)
    • defining ones self in terms of one's own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions
    • seen in: america, australia
  42. hollistic thought
    • focus on how various factors are inter-related; more sensitive to context
    • tolerance for contradiction and change
    • seen in: east asian
  43. analytical thought
    • more linear, focus on objects independent from the context, less comfortable with contradiction and ambivalence
    • cultures: american, western
  44. self esteem
    • the result of the selfs' evaluations of the self-concept
    • evaluations can be positive or negative, neutral, ambiguous, and ambivalent

    • state: how you feel about yourself right now
    • trait: how you feel about yourself generally
  45. self evaluation maintenance model
    • if someone out performs us, how do we maintain positive self evaluation?
    • if domain is RELEVANT to one's self-definition this is threatening so we: distance ourselves, devalue the performance domain
    • if domain is IRRELEVANT we bask in reflected glory (BIRG)
  46. BIRG bask in reflected glory
    if domain is irrelevant
  47. social comparison theory
    • people engage in social comparison when:
    • there is no objective standard to measure against
    • when they experience some uncertainty about themselves in a particular area
    • we compare to similar others
  48. upward social comparisons
    people who are better than us in a certain domain
  49. downward social comparisons
    people who are worse than us in a certain domain
  50. past self
    who was i in the past?
  51. current self
    who am i now?
  52. future self
    • who will i be in the future
    • can help with goal setting
  53. independent self
    a way of defining one self in terms of ones own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions not in terms of the thoughts, feelings and actions of others
  54. interdependent self
    way of defining yourself in terms of one's relationship to other people; recognizing that one's behavior is often determined by the thoughts feelings and actions of others
  55. spreading of alternatives
    • after deciding between two similar alternatives, we experience cognitive dissonance. to reduce dissonance we 
    • enhance attractiveness of chosen one
    • devalue rejected one
  56. feared self
    who am i afraid of being
  57. ideal self
    who do i want to be
  58. automatic thinking
    thinking that is unconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless