Biology Test 2.2

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veiwsonic2
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287617
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Biology Test 2.2
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2014-10-31 00:46:49
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bio biology science test
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Flash cards for Bio Test 2.2
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  1. What is breathing?
    A process by which Ois obtained and CO2 is released.
  2. What is inhalation?
    The intake of O(along with CO2 and N)
  3. What is exhalation?
    The breathing out of CO2 (along with N and O2)
  4. Label the diagram
    • 1. urethra
    • 2. Epiglottis
    • 3. Trachea
    • 4. Pharynx
    • 5. Esophagus
    • 6. Bronchi
    • 7. Bronchioles
    • 8. Alveoli
    • 9. Diaphragm
  5. What is the small flap that closes over the trachea while swallowing?
    Epiglottis
  6. What is the "windpipe"
    trachea
  7. What is the sheet-like muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the gut?
    diaphragm
  8. What are the smaller air tubes within the lungs?
    Bronchioles
  9. What are the two short tubes that take air into right and left lungs?
    Bronchi
  10. Name the three steps of inhalation
    • 1. Diaphragm contracted
    • 2. Rib cage moves up and out
    • 3. lungs expand due to decreased pressure
  11. Name the three steps of exhalation
    • 1. Diaphragm relaxes
    • 2. Rib cage moves in and down
    • 3. Lungs expel air due to increased pressure
  12. What is the location of gas exchange / the tiny air sacs found at the ends of the bronchioles?
    Alveoli
  13. H2O + CO2 -> ?
    • H2CO3 (acid)
  14. External air pressure : Internal air pressure
    Complete the ratio for inhaling and exhaling
    • equal:equal
    • (diaphragm expands); high:low
    • (air enters system); equal:equal
    • (diaphragm relaxes); low:high
    • (air leaves system); equal:equal
  15. What surrounds alveoli clusters?
    Capillaries
  16. What are the percentages of the gases entering and leaving the lungs?
    • Entering
    • Oxygen - 19.97%
    • Carbon Dioxide - 0.03%
    • Nitrogen - 80%

    • Leaving
    • Oxygen - 16%
    • Carbon Dioxide - 4%
    • Nitrogen - 80%
  17. Fill out the following diagram:
    • Air away from lungs-
    • CO2: high
    • O2: low

    • Air to lungs-
    • CO2: low
    • O2: high

    • Blood moving into lungs-
    • CO2: high
    • O2: low

    • Blood moving to the body-
    • CO2: low
    • O2: high

    • What moves into the alveoli?
    • CO2

    • What moves out of the alveoli?
    • O2
  18. O2 is carried by ____ molecules found in RBC's. Each can hold ___ molecules of O2
    Hemoglobin molecules; 4
  19. CO2 is dissolved in what?
    Blood plasma
  20. What is blood plasma?
    The liquid part of your blood
  21. CO2 may form a small amount of _________ when it dissolves in the blood
    carbonic acid (H2CO3)
  22. A buildup of carbonic acid in blood plasma lowers pH levels and triggers the brain to stimulate what?
    To stimulate the diaphragm to breathe more deeply and rapidly
  23. Is the respiratory system conscious or subconscious?
    subconscious (controlled by medulla) but it can be temporarily conscious
  24. What's the purpose of the respiratory system?
    To get oxygen and nitrogen to the blood and carbon dioxide to the external enviroment
  25. What's the purpose of the digestive system?
    To get molecules of food to blood cells
  26. What is ingestion?
    The taking in of foods or liquids
  27. What is digestion?
    A mechanical/chemical process which breaks down food into simpler molecules, synthesizes new molecules, and provides energy to the body
  28. What is mechanical digestion?
    The mixing and churning of food which increases the food's surface area for chemical digestion to occur
  29. What is chemical digestion?
    The chemical process which breaks down food particles into smaller molecules
  30. What is the order of the gastrointestinal tract? (My peach ensemble sings sweet lullabies)
    • 1. Mouth
    • 2. Pharynx
    • 3. Esophagus
    • 4. Stomach
    • 5. Small intestine
    • 6. Large intestine
  31. Name the four accessory digestive organs or glands that secrete materials that chemically digest food into the tract through ducts
    • 1. Salivary gland (ie parotid salivary gland)
    • 2. Gall bladder
    • 3. Liver
    • 4. Pancreas
  32. FIll out the following diagram:
    Mouth: Mixing / Chewing ; salivary amylase breaks down starch (carbohydrates)

    Stomach: Mixing / Churning ; Gastric fluid containing Pepsin and HCI break down proteins

    Liver / Gall Bladder: None ; Liver creates bile and gall bladder secreted bile into the tract which emulsifies fats into smaller droplets

    Pancreas: None ; Secretes several enzymes into the tract that aid in chemical digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates (FCP)

    Small intestine : None ; Secretes enzymes that complete the chemical digestion of all nutrients
  33. What does HCI do to enzymes?
    It allows them to work faster
  34. What happens when a fat is emulsified?
    It is made into smaller, separated droplets that cannot combine back together
  35. What are the end products of digestion?
    Amino acids, monosaccharides, glycerol, and fatty acids
  36. What happens to the end products of digestion?
    They are absorbed into the bloodstream via the blood vessels in the lining of the small instesting
  37. Explain this diagram and answer the question
    The villi are the finger-like projection coming off of the walls of the small intestine. In the villi are microvilli. Both the villi and the microvilli increase the surface area so more particles can be absorbed. Non absorbed particles go to the large intestine.
  38. What is / does the large intestine do?
    It completes the absorption of water and results in feces
  39. What is the purpose of the circulatory system?
    To move oxygen and food to parts of the body as well as to bring waste products to where they can be removed
  40. What are the three major components of the circulatory system?
    The heart, blood, and blood vessels
  41. What is the muscle that is used to pump blood through the body?
    The heart
  42. What is the sequence of blood flow?
    (He, Raj-Aniqua Rev-Vela, loves Leila-Aniqua Louise-Vela because)
    Heart, right artery, right ventricle, lungs, left artery, left ventricle, body
  43. Which side of the body/heart is oxygenated and which is deoxygenated?
    • Right = deoxygenated
    • Left = Oxygenated
  44. What transports nutrients and wastes to and from all body tissues?
    Blood
  45. Fill out this chart with labels and percentages:
  46. What is/are non formed elements?
    Plasma (water, hormones, ions, nutrients, carbon dioxide, urea)
  47. What are the three formed elements?
    • Red blood cells
    • White blood cells
    • Platelets
  48. Name four facts about red blood cells
    • 1. Made in the bone marrow
    • 2. Contains hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen
    • 3. Carries oxygen to body tissues
    • 4. No organelles
    • 5. Can only live about 90 days
  49. Name four facts about white blood cells
    • 1. Made in the bone marrow, the spleen, and in lymph nodes
    • 2. They are larger in size, but fewer in quantity
    • 3. Some engulf microorganisms while others produce antibodies
    • 4. They defend the body against infection from microorganisms
  50. Name three facts about platelets
    • 1. Help form blood clots
    • 2. Fragments of cells produced in bone marrow
    • 3. Much smaller than RBC's
  51. What are the three types of blood vessels?
    Arteries, veins, and capillaries
  52. What are large, muscular vessels which usually carry OXYGENATED blood AWAY from the heart and are very elastic to deal with the high pressure of pumped blood?
    Arteries
  53. What types of vessels carry blood back to the heart, are less muscular than arteries due to low blood pressure, and contain one-way valves to keep blood moving TOWARDS the heart?
    Veins
  54. What are the smallest blood vessels, with walls only one cell layer thick, that are involved in the diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc
    capillaries
  55. What gets rid of carbon dioxide and some water vapor?
    lungs
  56. What rids the body of salts, urea, and some water?
    The skin!
  57. What breaks down topic substances in the body and forms urea from metabolic nitrogenous wastes?
    Liver
  58. What is responsible for filtering blood, forms waste material (urine), and regulates blood volume (removes excess water)?
    Kidneys!
  59. What's in the blood that enters the kidney versus blood that leaves the kidneys?
    • Entering
    • -Blood cells
    • -Nutrients
    • -Water
    • -Urea
    • -Salts

    • Leaving
    • -Blood cells
    • -Nutrients
    • -Water
  60. What is filtered when it goes through the kidney?
    Urea, salts, and water
  61. Label the following diagram
    • Top to bottom:
    • Kidneys
    • nephrons
    • ureter
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  62. hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhn

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