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What is breathing?
A process by which O2 is obtained and CO2 is released.
What is inhalation?
The intake of O2 (along with CO2 and N)
What is exhalation?
The breathing out of CO2 (along with N and O2)
Label the diagram
- 1. urethra
- 2. Epiglottis
- 3. Trachea
- 4. Pharynx
- 5. Esophagus
- 6. Bronchi
- 7. Bronchioles
- 8. Alveoli
- 9. Diaphragm
What is the small flap that closes over the trachea while swallowing?
What is the "windpipe"
What is the sheet-like muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the gut?
What are the smaller air tubes within the lungs?
What are the two short tubes that take air into right and left lungs?
Name the three steps of inhalation
- 1. Diaphragm contracted
- 2. Rib cage moves up and out
- 3. lungs expand due to decreased pressure
Name the three steps of exhalation
- 1. Diaphragm relaxes
- 2. Rib cage moves in and down
- 3. Lungs expel air due to increased pressure
What is the location of gas exchange / the tiny air sacs found at the ends of the bronchioles?
External air pressure : Internal air pressure
Complete the ratio for inhaling and exhaling
- (diaphragm expands); high:low
- (air enters system); equal:equal
- (diaphragm relaxes); low:high
- (air leaves system); equal:equal
What surrounds alveoli clusters?
What are the percentages of the gases entering and leaving the lungs?
- EnteringOxygen - 19.97%
- Carbon Dioxide - 0.03%
- Nitrogen - 80%
- Oxygen - 16%
- Carbon Dioxide - 4%
- Nitrogen - 80%
Fill out the following diagram:
- Air away from lungs-
- CO2: high
- O2: low
- Air to lungs-
- CO2: low
- O2: high
- Blood moving into lungs-
- CO2: high
- O2: low
- Blood moving to the body-
- CO2: low
- O2: high
- What moves into the alveoli?
- What moves out of the alveoli?O2
O2 is carried by ____ molecules found in RBC's. Each can hold ___ molecules of O2
Hemoglobin molecules; 4
CO2 is dissolved in what?
What is blood plasma?
The liquid part of your blood
CO2 may form a small amount of _________ when it dissolves in the blood
carbonic acid (H2CO3)
A buildup of carbonic acid in blood plasma lowers pH levels and triggers the brain to stimulate what?
To stimulate the diaphragm to breathe more deeply and rapidly
Is the respiratory system conscious or subconscious?
subconscious (controlled by medulla) but it can be temporarily conscious
What's the purpose of the respiratory system?
To get oxygen and nitrogen to the blood and carbon dioxide to the external enviroment
What's the purpose of the digestive system?
To get molecules of food to blood cells
What is ingestion?
The taking in of foods or liquids
What is digestion?
A mechanical/chemical process which breaks down food into simpler molecules, synthesizes new molecules, and provides energy to the body
What is mechanical digestion?
The mixing and churning of food which increases the food's surface area for chemical digestion to occur
What is chemical digestion?
The chemical process which breaks down food particles into smaller molecules
What is the order of the gastrointestinal tract? (My peach ensemble sings sweet lullabies)
- 1. Mouth
- 2. Pharynx
- 3. Esophagus
- 4. Stomach
- 5. Small intestine
- 6. Large intestine
Name the four accessory digestive organs or glands that secrete materials that chemically digest food into the tract through ducts
- 1. Salivary gland (ie parotid salivary gland)
- 2. Gall bladder
- 3. Liver
- 4. Pancreas
FIll out the following diagram:
Mouth: Mixing / Chewing ; salivary amylase breaks down starch (carbohydrates)
Stomach: Mixing / Churning ; Gastric fluid containing Pepsin and HCI break down proteins
Liver / Gall Bladder: None ; Liver creates bile and gall bladder secreted bile into the tract which emulsifies fats into smaller droplets
Pancreas: None ; Secretes several enzymes into the tract that aid in chemical digestion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates (FCP)
Small intestine : None ; Secretes enzymes that complete the chemical digestion of all nutrients
What does HCI do to enzymes?
It allows them to work faster
What happens when a fat is emulsified?
It is made into smaller, separated droplets that cannot combine back together
What are the end products of digestion?
Amino acids, monosaccharides, glycerol, and fatty acids
What happens to the end products of digestion?
They are absorbed into the bloodstream via the blood vessels in the lining of the small instesting
Explain this diagram and answer the question
The villi are the finger-like projection coming off of the walls of the small intestine. In the villi are microvilli. Both the villi and the microvilli increase the surface area so more particles can be absorbed. Non absorbed particles go to the large intestine.
What is / does the large intestine do?
It completes the absorption of water and results in feces
What is the purpose of the circulatory system?
To move oxygen and food to parts of the body as well as to bring waste products to where they can be removed
What are the three major components of the circulatory system?
The heart, blood, and blood vessels
What is the muscle that is used to pump blood through the body?
What is the sequence of blood flow?
(He, Raj-Aniqua Rev-Vela, loves Leila-Aniqua Louise-Vela because)
Heart, right artery, right ventricle, lungs, left artery, left ventricle, body
Which side of the body/heart is oxygenated and which is deoxygenated?
- Right = deoxygenated
- Left = Oxygenated
What transports nutrients and wastes to and from all body tissues?
Fill out this chart with labels and percentages:
What is/are non formed elements?
Plasma (water, hormones, ions, nutrients, carbon dioxide, urea)
What are the three formed elements?
- Red blood cells
- White blood cells
Name four facts about red blood cells
- 1. Made in the bone marrow
- 2. Contains hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen
- 3. Carries oxygen to body tissues
- 4. No organelles
- 5. Can only live about 90 days
Name four facts about white blood cells
- 1. Made in the bone marrow, the spleen, and in lymph nodes
- 2. They are larger in size, but fewer in quantity
- 3. Some engulf microorganisms while others produce antibodies
- 4. They defend the body against infection from microorganisms
Name three facts about platelets
- 1. Help form blood clots
- 2. Fragments of cells produced in bone marrow
- 3. Much smaller than RBC's
What are the three types of blood vessels?
Arteries, veins, and capillaries
What are large, muscular vessels which usually carry OXYGENATED blood AWAY from the heart and are very elastic to deal with the high pressure of pumped blood?
What types of vessels carry blood back to the heart, are less muscular than arteries due to low blood pressure, and contain one-way valves to keep blood moving TOWARDS the heart?
What are the smallest blood vessels, with walls only one cell layer thick, that are involved in the diffusion of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc
What gets rid of carbon dioxide and some water vapor?
What rids the body of salts, urea, and some water?
What breaks down topic substances in the body and forms urea from metabolic nitrogenous wastes?
What is responsible for filtering blood, forms waste material (urine), and regulates blood volume (removes excess water)?
What's in the blood that enters the kidney versus blood that leaves the kidneys?
- -Blood cells
- Leaving-Blood cells
What is filtered when it goes through the kidney?
Urea, salts, and water
Label the following diagram
- Top to bottom:
- urinary bladder